FRINGE.

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COMMUNICATION & CREATIVE CULTURES. A2 BLOG TASKS

WEEK 7

One key point/ theme. One academic source related to this. Paraphrase the source text.

One key theme is the extent to which media adds to stereotypes existing in everyday society in New Zealand. Maori/ Polynesian inability to handle urban life is the most common stereotype. The mass dominated English speaking media has played an important role on having a negative “… impact of the portrayals of Mäori in New Zealand” (Nairn, R. Maori news is bad news. Mai journal, Volume 1 Issue 1. 2012. Whariki Research Group, Massey University, Auckland. Web. September 2016)

 

Describe one art/design/creative response to the socio-political problem that challenge Pacific Islanders in New Zealand.

One artistic response to the socio-political situation that confronted Pacific Islanders would be the POPOHARDWEAR t-shirts designed by artist Siliga David Setoga. These were “… reworks of put-downs” (Anae, page 237) in a funny and more positive way of slurs and racist expressions such as ‘FOB’ fresh off the boat used by most English speakers. People who wore them became walking advertisements of slogans which appreciated Maori/ Polynesian culture and identity.

 

Summary of the documentary on Dawn Raid’s. (60)

In summary, the ‘Dawn Raid’s’ documentary raises awareness of the racial tension between Polynesian and Pakeha groups in New Zealand during the 1970’s. With a large majority of migrants coming into the country’s workforce to support families back home, Polynesians were highly targeted compared to other ethnic groups. It was assumed that the raids for over stayers in Polynesian homes by police and immigration officers, acted as a cover for considered overzealous exaggeration of charges based on possible racism.

 

WORKS CITED:

  • (Anae, M. All power of the people. Wellington, New Zealand. 2012. Print. September 2016)
  • (Nairn, R. Maori news is bad news. Mai journal, Volume 1 Issue 1. 2012. Whariki Research Group, Massey University, Auckland. Web. September 2016)
  • (Fepulea’I, D. Dawn Raids. Documentary. September 2016)

 

WEEK 8

 

poor-family

(Gilbert, Greg. “Poverty”. Westra Ann. From Washday at the Pa (1964). https://prezi.com/ax9pswml0-2m/economic-inequality-aotearoa/. Lecture. 22 September 2016. 2016)

One example of representation of poverty in New Zealand is exemplified in the image above. This is a photograph of a Maori family taken in an almost rural, normal day to day life situation. It depicts a mother hand washing clothes in a tub and her many children indicating the stay at home situation, full-time caring for her family and representing the hard working condition. This relates to the key concept of different levels of poverty. Poverty is not being able to afford the basics to survive, it seems that the mother figure lacks the “financial resources and essentials” (Investopedia) to enjoy a minimum standard of life and well-being due to the absence of participation in society.

IMG_1719.jpg

 

WORKS CITED:

  • (Investopedia. “Poverty”. Definition of poverty. http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/poverty.asp#ixzz4LUyilqk6. Investopedia. 2016. Web. September 2016)
  • (Gilbert, Greg. “Poverty”. Westra Ann. From Washday at the Pa (1964). https://prezi.com/ax9pswml0-2m/economic-inequality-aotearoa/. Lecture. 22 September 2016. 2016)
  • (Harris, Aroha with Melissa Matutina Williams. Chapter 13 “Māori Affairs 1945 – 1970”. In Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Ed. Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney and Aroha Harris. Aotearoa: Bridget Williams Books, 2014. 382 – 413.)
  • (Harris, Aroha with Melissa Matutina Williams. Chapter 14 “Rights and Revitalisation: 1970 – 1990”. In Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Ed. Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney and Aroha Harris. Aotearoa: Bridget Williams Books, 2014. 416 – 450.)

 

WEEK 9

One representation of Maori is how they are seen and thought of as a native group who embody the uncivilised and uneducated society. This is usually a case of typical Maori stereotypes from mainly tourists that affect how people think of Maori peoples, influenced from news/ documents/ word of mouth stories that have risen from media within the country. Biased press and propaganda of the majority of crimes and gangs in New Zealand have been centred on Maori, labelling them as “… buffoonish behaviour… innate laziness” (Wall, Melanie). In relation to Wall’s ideas, she believes that we should not rely too much on New Zealand’s media to influence how we judge people especially Maori, rather to understand that they we all “…approach life with the same attitudes, thoughts, feelings and desires… fixity to an idealised past” (Wall).

WORKS CITED:

  • (Higgins, Rawinia & John C. Moorfield (2004). Ngā tikanga o te marae)
  • (Wall, Melanie (1997). Stereotypical Constructions of the Maori ‘Race’ in the Media)

 

WEEK 10

What is my own cultural identity? Parents tell me that i am a mix of both the Malaysian/ Chinese background. Throughout the many years that I have been living in New Zealand, I identify myself as a Kiwi and the other which I do not usually call myself too often unless people as the question, “No, where are you really from?”. I have been exposed to more of the culture in New Zealand. I play netball, tennis, I swim and take self defense, so both cultures have been included. It is easier to accept that I am Kiwi rather than being Malaysian/ Chinese, but maybe that is because I want to fit in and be like everyone else in this New Zealand society, to accept all types of cultures and understand more of both rather than exclude one over the other. At school I am able to express and learn about the Kiwi culture with relationships built around friends and teachers and at home I am gifted with being able to be a part of family traditions and celebrations relating to Asian events. In relation to a significant event in New Zealand, the Treaty of Waitangi can be an example of allowing two different cultures, Maori and European to live together in harmony. As a Malaysian/ Chinese born in New Zealand, I have been gifted the chance to accept both cultures and, like the Treaty of Waitangi, form this peace and equal co-existence of acceptance of each cultures activities, beliefs and events.

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(Woodward. Robin. “Dog and Doll”. Philip Trusttum (1974). Page 39. 2013. Book. 2016)

This image relates to my cultural identity as it involves diversity in a household, similar as my family at home, being able to bring in and mix the different cultures from outside of the household into our own home.

 

WEEK 11

The concept that corresponds with the project I felt was the best thing I made in Studio was Block 1, Screen for Mihimihi. This was mainly about introducing yourself and showcasing or creating a collage about your values, hobbies or background stories.

My project was based on producing a image collage, including images from my childhood and bits and pieces I have drawn by hand, painted and scanned onto the printer. The main concept behind it is to tell a story about my heritage and Malaysian/ Chinese culture and traditions passed down and influenced from my family, my background and life story of how I have become the person that I am today. In the wider context, this collage represent me and family/ friend influences which allow me to understand how I relate and fit into society and the community within New Zealand.

In Erna’s lecture, she goes over how gender roles have heavily influenced family ties and successions in Maori culture which were very important in power tribal rankings. Maori women and men are both “… acknowledged in the natural order of the universe” (Mikaere), as it depends on the strong line of their family which results in their status in the community. I believe that indigeneity is important when it comes to Maori, as they were the original people of the land, with Europeans aiming to decolonise and minimise traditions of Maori culture, loss of identity would take place. This intersects with my work because the main focus is that we should not forget our family roots as it makes us who we are no matter who tries to claim or change the way we act, look or feel, “… the whole was absolutely dependent on everyone who made it up” (Mikaere), my work is my own collage about the people who have shaped me into who I am today and I am proud. I should be thinking about this to reflect and show my true self and the genuine work I would like to produce and be influenced by in all future works.

WORKS CITED:

  • (Mikaere, Ani. (1994). Māori Women – Caught in the contradictions of a colonised reality. Page 1. 5 September 2014. 2016)

CONVERSATIONS AND CREATIVE CULTURES.

WEEK 2.

canoe

(‘Private Collection/ Bridgeman Art Library’. Anderson, Atholl. “Chapter 1: Ancient Origins”. Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Ed. Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney, and Aroha Harris. Aotearoa: Bridget Williams Books, 2014. page 28. Print)

 

This drawing depicts one of the earlier traditional forms of a double-hulled canoe in the early 17t century, illustrating the “…ungainly and dangerous” (pg 28) construction and materials involved in creating the structure. This is an important art example of the ancient origins of New Zealand as it symbolises one of many ever growing inventions since the beginning of Polynesian society since voyaging to New Zealand. Athol Anderson states that the difference in construction is noticeable “… certainly there were adaptation changes” (pg 28), proving that traditions of Polynesian voyaging and sailing is constantly evolving. In contrast to some of the later improved versions, Polynesian in New Zealand were involved in the importance of trade and interconnectivity all over the country by means of innovation through experimental sailing. Double-hulled canoes produced performance data and valuable evidence needed to gain more knowledge about “… seaworthiness, sea-keeping, sailing speeds and weatherliness” (pg 28). This is a good example of being able to trace back to Polynesian thinking and their ability to adapt to various seafaring conditions as they were able to build ingenious structures to “… better suit their sea conditions” (pg 28).

WORKS CITED:

  • (Anderson, Atholl. “Chapter 1: Ancient Origins”. Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Ed. Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney, and Aroha Harris. Aotearoa: Bridget Williams Books, 2014. page 28. Print)

 

 

WEEK 3.

tiki

(Te Papa, ME002100. Anderson, Atholl. “Chapter 3: Pieces of the Past AD 1200 – 1800” Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Ed. Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney, and Aroha Harris. pp 42 – 99. Print)

Te Puawaitanga (1500-1800 AD) ‘The Flowering period’

‘Pounamu Hei Tiki’ (page 94) is an artwork carved from one of the rarest types of pounamu, ‘kahurangi’, being bright green and pure of any marks. With its hand in mouth and striking tilted head pose, it was “made and worn as a mark of status” (Anderson, page 90) in the traditional era and was greatly treasured.

The traditional phase in New Zealand was the art historical period in time where Maori settlement was open to being mobile in many kainga (villages and camps). With many kainga dispersed around the country land and a continuous growing population, it tested people’s wealth and status, “heightening competition and territoriality” (Anderson, page 91).

One aspect of the artworks form that directly relates to the Te Puawaitanga art historical period would be the material used, and how it strengthened trade networking between the Islands. ‘Pounamu’, known as Jade stone, was a scarce luxury material originally sourced in the South Island which attracted the migration of many Maori seeking to showcase their wealth and status through Pounamu ornaments. With closely controlled trading between the Islands through Cook Strait, exchanging high value manufactured goods made with Pounamu to the North were “…distributed through networks that reflected links through ancestry” (Anderson, page 91).

The combination of trading between the Islands through strong ancestry links and representation of status/ wealth through detailed crafting both add traditional and historical importance to ‘Pounamu Hei Tiki” in New Zealand.

WORKS CITED:

  • (Anderson, Atholl. “Chapter 3: Pieces of the Past AD 1200 – 1800” Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Ed. Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney, and Aroha Harris. pp 42 – 99. Print)

 

 

WEEK 4.

1.) Choose one term from Moko Mead’s “Ngā Pūtanga o te tikanga: Underlying principals and values”, summarise this and explain how it can be applied to art/design.

Take-utu-ea: is the process of working out a solution to a breach of some sort. This three-some concept “comprises an analytical template for examining behavioural issues” (Moko Mead, page 27). Parties from groups involved must agree to a resolution that satisfies all parties and consequentially end in recompense for the wrong party. This term can be applied to art/ design through use of copyright issues of any work. Breaching of copyrighting of artwork can lead to arguments between the artist and the person who has used their work without their consent, which then inevitably calls the need for a solution and also punishment or repayment of the wrongdoer.

2.) Explain one way intellectual property and copyright laws are inefficient to address the misuse of taonga works.

Time limitations on safeguarding and granting temporary protection is one way intellectual property and copyright laws are insufficient to address the misuse of taonga works. With IP rights being granted for a limited amount of time and copyright laws lasting one or two generations, these laws are only temporarily safeguarding “… rights over use of the invention or expressions reflected in those physical things” (Taong Works, page 31), however ideas can still be developed and used without consent. Matauranga Maori is incredibly treasured being acknowledged as the “… hearts and minds of communities” (Taonga Works, page 44), hence these laws do not adhere to respecting Maori taonga works as kaitiaki do not have absolute control over sharing Maori knowledge and cultural identity.

WORKS CITED:

  • (Taonga Works and Intellectual Property (2011) in Ko Aotearoa Tēnei – A Report into Claims Concerning New Zealand Law and Policy Affecting Māori Culture and Identity. 29-56. Print.)
  • (Mead, Hirini Moko. “Chapter 2: Ngā Pūtake o te Tikanga – Underlying Principles And Values”. Tikanga Māori: Living By Māori Values. Aotearoa: Huia Publishers, 2003. 25-34. Print.)

 

 

WEEK 5.

The European nation had planned to conquest territory in New Zealand through different groups; missionaries, advocates and agents of ‘Organised Immigration’ and merchants and capitalists. They collectively believed that the expansion and intervention into the new land would benefit not only their power as an Empire in trade and networking, but also improve their declining economic state in Britain, in consequence of the supposed Industrial Revolution, “profits were declining… disorder arising from poverty and unemployment was increasing” (Belich, page 183). The main settlements after the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840 had been split into sections, each largely influenced by “… European justices of the peace… and increasingly claimed jurisdiction over Maori” (Belich, page 191). The new state and Pakeha society had outnumbered Maori, they had lost a lot of independence and false control over possessions and land to which they could only sell to the Crown. The two parties had differing meanings of Maori consent and with this the local partnership led to disagreements and later on active violence evidence of the civil war in 1857 ‘Musket Wars’ in New Zealand between Maori and Pakeha.

Dick Whyte stated that before the designation of land, ‘sectioning off main settlements is largely influenced through conceptual and political acts’ (Whyte, Dick), which in hand has created diverse successes of communication and architecture within societal cultures in these living segments. European colonisation has greatly impacted on visual and material culture in New Zealand, infusing ‘new’ forms of tools and skills from overseas with traditional Maori ways, introducing different ways of building and marketing.

 

WORKS CITED:

  • (Belich, James. “Chapter 8: Making empire?” Making Peoples: A history of the New Zealanders, from Polynesian settlement to the end of the nineteenth century. Hawai’i Press, 2001. 179-203. Print.)
  • (Whyte, Dick. 18th August 2016. Lecture. 2016)

 

 

WEEK 6.

How Maori visual and material culture has been framed by predominantly Western accounts. 

Maori visual and material culture has mainly been influenced by Western accounts, this is evident through paintings and refashioning of existing tools and ornaments. Maori women were seen as exotic and refreshing to Westerners, and soon their attitudes were reflected in painted portraits of themselves, changing from natural poses to a more forced position they believed was asked of them. In 1773, a young Maori woman, “… offered her painter different reclining positions… she was instructed simply to remain entirely inactive” (Anderson, page 141). Maori material culture had also been framed around high demand of prized Maori tools sought by Europeans, “… demand stimulated production… refashioning of adzes into higher value hei tiki and other ornaments” (Anderson, page 157). Predominantly traditional Maori visual and material culture has been built around Western accounts, who have “…transformed a struggling colony into a progressive dominion” (Wheoki, page 3).

cloak.jpg

(Kahu huruhuru. Waikato Museum, L2004/17/6. Rangimarie Hetet, 1975. Anderson, Atholl. “Chapter 15: ‘Tangata Whenua, Tangata Ora’. Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Ed. Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney, and Aroha Harris. p454. Print)

20th Century art/design example, how it can relate to Maori worldview (origins, customary practices).

This artwork can be considered from a Maori worldview as Maori believe that knowledge from their ancestors are valuable information that should be passed down through generations in order to retain the purity of their native Maori culture. As a “… living taonga that carries the values, knowledge and spiritual essence” (Anderson, page 454) of Maori people, this traditional art form of weaving is a customary practice which is evidence to traditional Maori origins and carefully reserved family weaving techniques. Made from muka and pheasant feathers, this is a treasured taonga belonging to the artist ‘Dame Rangimarie Hetet’s’ family, in relation to Maori worldview, family and taonga values are highly prized in respect of historical origins and customary practices.

WORKS CITED:

  • (Anderson, Atholl. ‘Chapter 5: In the Foreign Gaze’. Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Ed. Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney, and Aroha Harris. Aotearoa: Bridget Williams Books, 2014. pg 132 – 159. Print. 2016)
  • (Anderson, Atholl. ‘Chapter 15: ‘Tangata Whenua, Tangata Ora’. Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Ed. Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney, and Aroha Harris. Aotearoa: Bridget Williams Books, 2014. pg454. Print. 2016)
  • (Mane-Wheoki, J. (2011). Art’s Histories in Aotearoa New Zealand. pg 1-12. 2016)

PUBLISHABLE BLOG POSTS ASSESSMENT 3

WEEK 9-

My project is going to be about ‘Global Warming’ and the causes and effects that surround this issue. How humans have come to waste resources and created excess wastage which is thrown away, polluting our planet and lands, killing species and plants that are endangered. This concerns me and is a big issues for me because everything in the world around us is powered by something which in consequence will be somehow effecting our planet, in silent ways in which we cannot see. However, it is good to talk about this topic as I would like future generations to continue living and work towards a better world where resources are not taken for granted or wasted for our continuous human development. Mirzoeff’s idea about what it means to be a citizen in this global era is mainly about how mostly everyone in the world is involved in the creation of issues, or simple partake in the spreading of news somehow. To be a citizen in this global era is simply being a part of networking and connections, “… understand the total noise all around us every day as the new everyday condition” (Mirzoeff, pg280), Mirzoeff believes that everything happening around us is left for us to experience and control. Mirzoeff uses images such as ‘Tank and Bread’ by young graffiti artist Mohamed Fahmy (Ganzeer) to explain how graffiti marks places to tell a story and has the ability to reach those who are illiterate or who do not won device that are connected to the internet. Mirzoeff uses this image to show the different types of visual techniques used to reach all types of groups, and that his artwork marks the city walls as a statement for all to see, not as exclusive as a museum or website. This is a good example of being a citizen in the global era as people who walk past the graffiti of a tank targeting a boy in a bicycle, it is up to them to decide what to do with that information, their reaction and emotions control how they act or wish to act. Ganzeer only creating a story for citizens to think about, making them think for themselves in how they want the world to be, this is their job as citizens of our global era. It is what they do with that information that counts in changing our society.

Mirzoeff states that “visual culture practice has gone through several versions in the past twenty-five years and has now converged around visual activism” (Mirzoeff p.261), meaning that visual activism has bought deeper meaning into our visual culture. Purpose intertwined with politics and social justices in society that has been continuously changing, but now mainly focused on using visual methods to represent group/s to the public.

He also believes that ‘visual thinking’ has evolved from visual culture and into a form of practice. ‘… is something we do not simply study” (Mirzoeff p.263), stating the different degrees in which we are able to engage ourselves with visual texts. It is something that has been growing in society, our desire to make meanings of everything made, to make those connections and question the representation and use of media.

 

 

 

WEEK 10-

For a long period of time now, water pollution has been rising at a faster pace than we anticipated, “… it is created by industrial and commercial waster, agricultural practices, everyday human activities and most notably, models of transportation” (Owa, F.D). As citizens of this planet we fail to comprehend the global issue of our deteriorating environment, we continue to exponentially produce waste that in end we light-heartedly disregard, ‘out of sight, out of mind’. The Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century not only introduced new developing machinery but also new types of air and water pollution. Before new machinery was introduced “industrial communities grew up around the water-powered mills” (Evans, p163) and natural materials less harmful to the environment and its species. During this starting period of developing ground breaking machinery, “well established coal was the most important domestic fuel in towns… beginning to find uses in industry” (Burton, p39), crucial in powering most steam machines, resulting in mass releases of smog and soot, harmful emissions affected the health of communities living in urban areas in close proximity to the factories. As long as people are willing to purchase and consume products, we continue to fuel the creation of waste and develop the issue that is pollution, “… up to 500 million tons of heavy metals, solvents and toxic sludge slip into the global water supply every year”, (A&E Television Networks), manufacturing consequences and unwanted waste thrown away by corporations and businesses that are too lazy to properly deal with their own responsibilities. Groups affected are those who are living in developing countries, such as India and China, where there is a lack of health funding and infrastructure to assist them with proper treatment facilities, “…3.2 million children die each year as a result of unsafe drinking water and poor sanitation”, (EcoMENA.).

It has recently become highlighted as more of a major contemporary issue, as more people have addressed it on social media, which Mirzoeff states “has accelerated change in movements that were now noticed by public” (Mirzoeff, pg272), as the effects of these changes has become more vivid and evident throughout the world by mid-20th century. Consumer waste are products that have been bought and used for its sole purpose and left to be disposed of, being a consumer item, it has fulfilled its intended use and waits to be recycled or thrown away. Although some of these consumer waste materials are not as harmful to humans, garbage that we routinely throw away daily “… average person generates 4.3 pounds of waste per day” (Duke Univeristy), slowly builds up in the shadows to our disregard, finding their ways to oceans, disrupting animal species, poisoning the environment in countless ways.

Toxic wastes are poisonous by-products made from factory processes in form of liquids, gases or solids, “… considered toxic when it causes death or harm by being inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through the skin” (The New York Times). Toxic waste since the industrial revolution, has affected humans, animals and the environment, a serious damaging environmental issue that is becoming globally terrifying as a main cause of diseases and death. The BP Oil Spill in 2010 exemplifies how human activities are piling up waste and fuelling the mass pollution of oceans. On 15th July 2010, “it is considered the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry” (EcoMENA), the consequences of this large spill in the ocean meant months of cleaning up and preventing the further spread of oil, already damaging marine and wildlife habitats, and many distresses about direct contact to the oil and public health. With “… media as the form that keeps us all connected, we are shown the representation of real life events” (Mirzoeff, pg290), meaning that communities are able to tell their stories, having free will to state their opinions and protest on social media against events that concern them. Many sea turtles, pelicans and marine mammals were found dead, however surviving species were nursed back to health. Our desire and greed of living luxurious lives, buying and throwing away wasted materials is not only physically affecting our world and its species, but is influencing us as citizens of the 21st century to take this information, think and do something about it, using the power of mainstream media which is very influential worldwide, taking issues to a public stage.

 

 

 

WEEK 11-

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Figure 1. (Jordan, Chris. Photographic Arts. http://chrisjordan.com/gallery/midway/#about. Midway Project. February 2011. June 2016. Blog)

One of the more subtle approaches to drawing attention to ocean pollution existing in our world today is shown through the photographs taken by Chris Jordan from 2009- to current. As a photographer, he has focused on the effects of plastic pollution on animal species, birds in particular, and has dissected the already dead birds, “plastic found inside birds includes bags, bottle caps, synthetic fibres from clothing, and tiny rice-sized bits that have been broken down by the sun and waves” (Parker, Laura), opening up the ugly truth behind human waste and ignorance. As a cultural critic, Chris Jordan has tackled our society’s way of thinking, questioning whether our actions are actually helping the environment and its species the right way, not necessarily pointing the finger, but using the photograph as a means to capture what others have not been able to witness, asking us how this has happened in the beginning. “These birds reflect back an appallingly emblematic result of the collective trance of our consumerism and runaway industrial growth” (Jordan, Chris). Using a photograph itself has the power of digitally documenting something to be seen, which is usually unseen by the public, and he has critiqued how we as humans are stuck in a culture and society where consuming and throwing away products has become second nature, and is therefore our responsibility to change and fix this growing problem that he has addressed to us through his still but emotionally moving photographs. He acts as an agent of change as he expresses his individual opinion which Mirzoeff states is “more authentic to have each person tell their own story, individual opinions shown have a more unique and heavy influence” (Mirzoeff, pg264), taking what he sees and feels and transforms them into visual representations of his ideas, demanding a reaction from his audience, his goal is to make people feel how he had felt when looking at these birds who had died at the expense of our waste and environmental destruction.

 

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Figure 2. (Vartanian, Hrag. Liberate Tate Annotates Tate Modern’s Turbine Hall in 25-Hour Guerrilla Protest. http://hyperallergic.com/214959/liberate-tate-annotates-tate-moderns-turbine-hall-in-25-hour-guerrilla-protest/. June 2015. June 2016. Website)

 

‘Liberate Tate’ is a self- managed organisation of a group of artists working in cooperation to intervene in the social change of ending sponsorship between Tate Museum and BP, “raising their voices for a more ethical approach to the art museum’s relationships and sources of funding” (Vartanian, Hrag). Using social media such as Facebook to keep in contact and organize these protests, “Facebook did not cause the revolution, but allowed for the dissemination of information” (Mirzoeff, pg281), which have been very successful in terms of being able to reach the news media on website and videos online. ‘Liberate Tate’ have already staged 14 protest works that focused on sharing their opinion that the BP company “… presence in galleries and museums is a stain on our culture” (Vartarian, Hrag) to a large audience. “Glen Tarman, a member of the Liberate Tate movement states, “… art museums are places where we make sense of the world… We shouldn’t be complicit in climate change just because we appreciate great art” (Scaife, Amy). They believe that the Museum should not need to continue promoting BP, as they were known for finding cheaper ways out of cleaning up their own mess that still continues to negatively affect the environment. An example of one of their most well- known performance protests ‘Time Piece’ 2010, was when seventy-five protestors spent almost an entire day writing words of warning about climate change on the floor of the museum hall using charcoal. As a group of self-managed artists working together, these powerful 21st century citizens take action and shape what they want to see change in the world. As cultural critics, they are standing up against the collaboration and support of Tate museum with BP, they disagree with BP in regard to their slacking of cleaning their oil spill ocean pollution and reach out to people visiting the Tate museum, a large number of people that all gather to one place. In response, ‘Liberate Tate’ has managed to get their message across to thousands of people through social media, through the internet and physically at the site of the work itself, demanding and captivating their audience, in which a large majority agree that the partnership should end.

 

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Figure 3. (Autonomous Nonprofit Organization. French rivers dyed green – and it’s not even St Patrick’s Day. https://www.rt.com/viral/340914-french-rivers-dyed-green/. April 2016. June 2016. Website)

 

Recently, a stunt performed by French environmentalists in 25th April 2016 has drawn a lot of attention to water pollution being a more contemporary global issue. Their eye- catching protest of safe dyeing multiple rivers neon green across France, aimed to highlight the vast extent to which pollution spreads in the water, the dye following the flow and creating a visible path of where the dye is carried and spread. This form of visual activism is a very demanding and strong in captivating its audience, asking them to recognise the “lack of environmental public service” in their cities (Autonomous Nonprofit Organization). These unknown French environmental activists criticise the works of their government and disagree with their inability to enforce regulations to safe guard the environment and the growing pollution of water. They are agents of change who have acted against the government by calling them out, asking the big question of the lack of environmental public services. Mirzoeff believes that news is only made important by people and groups who take this information and share it “made important through our engagement and participation in adding news and spreading it throughout the media” (Mirzoeff, pg259). By dyeing not one but twelve rivers, audiences are made to ponder what would cause such an uproar for a group to do this, the large degree of this visual protest provoked the government attention. In the end they were able to get answers from the Environmental Inspector at ONEMA, stating that they were going to begin tackling some of their environmental public services. By arranging their own self- managed protests, the French environmentalists have been able to draw attention to water pollution issues and have successfully influenced their government to take action, being good examples of agents of change, working towards a change in the environment that they want to see.

In New Zealand society today, our developed country has allowed the necessary equipment for keeping our water safe, “The Government’s Fresh Start for Fresh Water Clean-up Fund has contributed to seven community initiatives to clean up some of New Zealand’s most iconic waterways” (New Zealand Ministry for the Environment.), the govenrment the issue of water pollution is not as drastic here compared to other developing countries who lack the funding to improve their water and health systems.

Being a 21st century citizen has given us a better advantage with our developed technology, having the ability to globally communicate and share ideas in almost an instant through social media, compared to basic pen and paper in the earlier years. It is up to us as a 21st century citizens to take information of issues and participate in working towards creating the change that we would like to see, our individual influences and actions have the absolute ability and individual power to change the world into what we desire. Our role as cultural critics is up to our opinions and perspectives, our worldviews are each different which contribute to our way of thinking in terms of fixing a problem that we relate to or desire to improve. “Networking and young population has led to revolution and sharing information” (Mirzoeff, pg294), it is important for our generation to make use of the social media that the previous generations had no access to, with faster ability to share information and ideas, activist groups are able to collaborate quicker and revolutionise society through movements and protests.

 

 

 

 

WEEK 13-

Visual activism alone does not change the world, but it is the audience who uses their visual thinking skills to interpret the artwork, making sense and comprehending what it is trying to say. Mirzoeff believes that visual thinking has been growing in our society, the ability to make connections and decided their opinions and ideas. Without visual thinking, people would not be able to make the right connections or be motivated to take action through demonstrations or protest. In our current society, human garbage is finding its way to the oceans, forming into a giant floating landfill in the centre of the ocean“Great Pacific Garbage Patch… bigger than Texas” (NOAA’s Ocean Service). The global issue of water pollution is snowballing, in the future our growing population will need more advanced machinery to meet the demands of the purchase of products, meaning more new gas emissions and leftover waste.

I have created a series of photographs of used trash left to waste flying around our streets, hiding under people’s ignorance. I spent 3 days picking up rubbish polluting our streets, grouped them into a collective pile to be photographed. These photographs were then printed onto A3 paper and pasted onto the side of a building with labels beside them. My creative artwork has been inspired by Chris Jordan, where he documents the unseen, what is silently happening under all the noise of human activities. I have also been inspired by the‘Liberate Tate’ group as they publically state their opinion for a public audience, I have formed an open gallery for pubillc viewing. All these different forms of visual activist projects and various types of citizenships work collectively to stand up against corporations and communicate the change in the world they strive for. This project materially responds to the environmental issue as it only uses paper which is bio degradable, the print is a simple documentation and collection of human waste that demands attention as the paper flaps in the wind on the side of a building wall. The open gallery symbolises the rubbish itself, being a part of the street, only seen when people want to see it. The work promotes needed change in our environment to a wide ranged audience, and how we as a collective community are becoming the main source of pollution and in end, our own destruction. I wanted to change people’s perceptions, not to disregard the singular pieces of rubbish floating around left by humans, but to look at it as a whole and make sense of pollution of consuming products. These series of photographs are associated with visual activism as it challenges the audience to think about what could be done to prevent the continuation of global pollution, to take the necessary action before time runs out for the growth of human waste and lastly the artwork involves label of corporations of products that uses packaging that is not eco-friendly, allowing audiences to pinpoint which companies are not concerned about the environment or planets well-being.

 

 

CREATIVE ARTWORK:

‘The Human Collection of Waste Street Gallery’

Jasmine Chin

7/6/2016

Reused A3 plain paper, ink, masking tape, vivid pen, rubbish and camera.

I have created a series of photographs of used trash that has been left on our streets. I spent 3 days picking up rubbish that pollutes our streets, grouped them into a collective pile to be photographed. The work promotes needed change in our environment to a wide ranged audience in an open art gallery, and how we as a collective community are becoming the main source of pollution and in end, our own destruction. I wanted to change people’s perceptions, not to disregard the singular pieces of rubbish floating around left by humans, but to look at it as a whole and make sense of pollution of consuming products.

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Works Cited:

 

 

WORKBOOK A3

WEEK 9 RESEARCH- activist projects, blogs of art/ design culture.

Information Gathering

Topic and Global Issues-

15 Major Current Environmental Problems

  1. Pollution: Pollution of air, water and soil require millions of years to recoup. Industry and motor vehicle exhaust are the number one pollutants. Heavy metals, nitrates and plastic are toxins responsible for pollution. While water pollution is caused by oil spill, acid rain, urban runoff; air pollution is caused by various gases and toxins released by industries and factories and combustion of fossil fuels; soil pollution is majorly caused by industrial waste that deprives soil from essential nutrients.
  2. Waste Disposal: The over consumption of resources and creation of plastics are creating a global crisis of waste disposal. Developed countries are notorious for producing an excessive amount of waste or garbage and dumping their waste in the oceans and, less developed countries. Nuclear waste disposal has tremendous health hazards associated with it. Plastic, fast food, packaging and cheap electronic wastes threaten the well being of humans. Waste disposal is one of urgent current environmental problem.
  3. Loss of Biodiversity: Human activity is leading to the extinction of species and habitats and and loss of bio-diversity. Eco systems, which took millions of years to perfect, are in danger when any species population is decimating. Balance of natural processes like pollination is crucial to the survival of the eco-system and human activity threatens the same. Another example is the destruction of coral reefs in the various oceans, which support the rich marine life.
  4. Ocean Acidification: It is a direct impact of excessive production of CO2. 25% of CO2 produced by humans. The ocean acidity has increased by the last 250 years but by 2100, it may shoot up by 150%. The main impact is on shellfish and plankton in the same way as human osteoporosis.
  5. Water Pollution: Clean drinking water is becoming a rare commodity. Water is becoming an economic and political issue as the human population fights for this resource. One of the options suggested is using the process of desalinization. Industrial development is filling our rivers seas and oceans with toxic pollutants which are a major threat to human health.

 

Research

Activist projects-

Activist groups-

  • https://freechild.org/youth-led-activism/- Youth led activists, training younger groups in the community about organising and advocacy to alter power relations and make and be the change that they want to see in the world that they live in.

Education — Simply becoming engaged in an issue is the first step towards youth-led activism. However, learning about the politics, economics and social effects of issues being protested are key, too. Youth activists can research, study and critique things central to their community organizing efforts.

Training — Learning about issues is not all youth activists need. Training can be essential for youth-led activists to be successful. They can learn the skills needed and tactics that are vital for successful for powerful short-term and long-term campaigns designed to change the world.

Inspiration — The reality of youth activism today is that there is a lot of inspiration. However, finding it can be challenging for children and youth, as few sources are brave enough to share powerful stories of youth changing the world. Youtube, select media, and many other sources may provide important stories youth can relate to. Also, in communities around the world its important to see what’s happened before, and many communities have hidden histories of youth-led activism.

 

Research Blogs

Activist blogs- http://rescue.neaq.org/ – environmentalists helping marine life from harmful pollutants in oceans and land.

 

Quotes from Mirzoeff chapter 7 and Afterword.

  • “skilful use of media to spread their concept of a politics”
  • “they saw changing media and politics as two parts of the same process”
  • “right to look and be seen online”
  • “used smart phones, graffiti, social media, demonstrations and occupations”
  • “Facebook did not cause the revolution, but allowed for the dissemination of information”
  • “people still had to act as a result of the information for there to be social change”
  • “it thinks with the audience rather than for them”- Mohammed Fahmy.
  • “as long as there’s a camera the revolution will continue”
  • “intended to cause the viewer to question what he or she sees”
  • “new global situation has changed and how change itself is now a key subject for anyone interested in the visual”

 

Mirzoeff believes:

  • That global digital culture is spreading
  • Meanings of combined representation are key to comprehending the era of globalisation (Representative- system of government elected to prevent others interest and how we see events and experience in medium formats)
  • Think about how the world is represented politically and visually or whether oligarchies fuelled on worldwide extensions will continue.
  • Movements were the start of global social media used to make people think about representation and social change.
  • Media has evolved worldwide, interconnectivity, news spreading widely. Revolution all thanks to the spread of information.
  • Social media has accelerated change in movements that were now noticed by public.
  • Media is the form that keeps us all connected, we are shown the representation of real life events.
  • Networking and young population that has led to revolution and sharing information.
  • Media expresses opinions, people and has broken away from past experiences.
  • It is more authentic to have each person tell their own story, individual opinions shown have a more unique and heavy influence.
  • Mainstream media is very influential worldwide, taking issues to a public stage.
  • Visual culture is a bridge linking past and present, everyday visual involvement.
  • Issues in our world have only been made important by/ through our engagement and participation in adding news and spreading it throughout the media.
  • Media has the power to transcend messages, however can be misinterpreted.
  • Once we understand what is happening in our world, ten are we able to take small steps to begin the change that we would like to see.

 

Glossary:

  • Representative- system of government elected to prevent others interest and how we see events and experience in medium formats.
  • Oligarchies- government where power/ dominance is only given to a few.
  • Dissemination- spreading to a wide extent.
  • Catalysed- acceleration of change.

 

 

WEEK 10

  • (Toxic- low income nations, sold, exported, dumped, China/ Ghana, social and health issues. Industrial- fracking/ pumping; mix of chemicals into the ground to release gas; little government enforcement of regulations, China has the capacity to change, BP oil spill 2012. Consumer waste- ‘out of sight, out of mind’) tutorial group, Lyn Ciochetto powerpoint)
  • RESEARCH- Investigate different forms of visual activism and thinking, protests, acts of disrupting governments or corporations. Possible drawings and ideas for your creative artwork, process and construction.

Visual activism:

“I’m not interested in filming the violence and the weapons, you see that enough in the media, what I want to show is the incredible life and energy”. French street artist JR encouraging people to print and paste their image in public spaces around the world, with the help of the community in Israel, he managed to cover a whole hill of portraits of families who had lost people they knew to human trafficking. “It’s people’s curiosity that motivates them to come into the projects.” “art is not supposed to change the world, practical things, but to change perceptions, art can change the way we see the world, art is a neutral place for exchanges and discussions and then enables you to change the world”

 

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’28 Millimeters, Women Are Heroes’ in Rio de Janeiro in 2008

http://nikolasbadminton.com/the-hobo-code-propaganda-visual-activism/. 2015.

 

The common claim of these and other projects is to be able to change the world by making both the world as it is and the change has it happens visible: in everyday life (definitely on the street yet increasingly also on the web it seems). Whether or not successful in achieving the specific aims of each project, they give an example of the visual arts’ possibilities – and growing confidence – for making their voice seen in creative local and trans-local (urban) interventions. Yet the strong focus on images of this kind of visual ‘street politics’ also attracts criticism routed in the concern that the social dimensions of life, space and politics are too fast and too easily thrown overboard pursuing streamline communication design and maximum media impact.

Glossary-

  • Visual activism- using art/ design and other visual forms to act in support of opposition to one side of any controversial issue in society.
  • Citizenship- being an individual residing and belonging to a particular country.
  • Change agents- a person who assists in the transformation of an organisation, helping to improve and develop.
  • Cultural critics- reason why the cultural product is of such value stretches across a wide variety of disciplines.
  • Protest- statement or action against something they do not support or believe in.
  • Resistance- refusing to accept or submit to or with something.

 

 

 

 

  • CONTEXT: (Toxic- low income nations, sold, exported, dumped, China/ Ghana, social and health issues.
  • Industrial- fracking/ pumping; mix of chemicals into the ground to release gas; little government enforcement of regulations, China has the capacity to change, BP oil spill 2012.
  • Consumer waste- ‘out of sight, out of mind’) tutorial group, Lyn Ciochetto powerpoint)

 

From longstanding to emerging hazards, environmental factors are a root cause of a significant burden of death, disease and disability – particularly in developing countries.

Already in many developing countries a range of toxic effluents is emitted directly into soil, air and water – from industrial processes, pulp and paper plants, tanning operations, mining, and unsustainable forms of agriculture – at rates well in excess of those tolerable to human health. Along with the problem of acute poisonings, the cumulative health impacts of human exposures to various chemical combinations and toxins can be a factor in a range of chronic health conditions and diseases

The health impacts of environmental risks are heaviest among poor and vulnerable populations in developing countries. For instance, poor coastal populations in developing countries may be among the most vulnerable to sea-level rises and extreme weather events. The poor in developing countries generally have the least access to clean water sources, and those same populations also may be the most directly exposed to environmental risks such as vector-borne diseases and indoor air pollution from solid fuel use. At the same time, poor people also may be the most dependent on natural resources as sources of livelihoods and well-being, and thus be most impacted by unsustainable exploitation or depletion of those resources

http://www.who.int/heli/risks/ehindevcoun/en/

 

  • PROTESTS: Investigate different forms of visual activism and thinking, protests, acts of disrupting governments or corporations. Possible drawings and ideas for your creative artwork, process and construction.

 

 

WEEK 11

  • Explore how artists/ designers and creative producers perform their role as cultural critics and agents of change through a process of visual and textual research.
  • RESEARCH- artists/ designers that respond in protest, imaging different futures. (2 books, 1 academic site), artists/ designers involved in issue. Artists/ designers and creative works in relation to the issue, same visual strategies as your own?

 

  • Glossary-

Agency- action causing a particular effect.

Social responsibility- ethical framework for individuals to perform, playing their part in our economy and social lifestyle.

Transformative practices-

 

On Midway Atoll, a remote cluster of islands more than 2000 miles from the nearest continent, the detritus of our mass consumption surfaces in an astonishing place: inside the stomachs of thousands of dead baby albatrosses. The nesting chicks are fed lethal quantities of plastic by their parents, who mistake the floating trash for food as they forage over the vast polluted Pacific Ocean.

For me, kneeling over their carcasses is like looking into a macabre mirror. These birds reflect back an appallingly emblematic result of the collective trance of our consumerism and runaway industrial growth. Like the albatross, we first-world humans find ourselves lacking the ability to discern anymore what is nourishing from what is toxic to our lives and our spirits. Choked to death on our waste, the mythical albatross calls upon us to recognize that our greatest challenge lies not out there, but in here.

http://chrisjordan.com/gallery/midway/#about

 

There was no beauty in the oil rig’s explosion. Nor in the deaths of eleven men, and the torrent of crude oil that gushed into the Atlantic. But catastrophe often inspires culture. In the weeks and months that followed, an international cadre of artists (and pranksters) skewered BP in city streets and pristine white walls of gallery spaces. Some of their efforts were simplistic agitprop — uncomfortably close to an Aldous Snow music video — but many qualify as genuine creative accomplishments.

Most infamously, for the August issue of Vogue Italia, Steven Meisel photographed models wrapped in darkened garments, overwrought with grief, lying across blackened beaches plagued with dead wildlife. The series, which seemed to invite controversy for the sake of controversy, caused more outrage and grief than it soothed.

http://www.esquire.com/news-politics/news/a8407/bp-oil-spill-artwork-090910/

 

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This photo of an albatross chicks was taken in September 2009 on Midway Atoll, a tiny stretch of sand and coral near the middle of the North Pacific. To document this phenomenon as faithfully as possible, not a single piece of plastic in this photograph was moved, placed, manipulated, arranged or altered in any way. This image depicts the actual stomach contents of baby birds in one of the world’s most remote marine sanctuaries, more than 2,000 miles from the nearest continent. Photo by Chris Jordan – http://chrisjordan.com.

 

Plastic pollution off the northwest coast of North America is reaching the level of the notoriously polluted North Sea, according to a new study led by a researcher at the University of British Columbia (UBC).

 

The study, published online in the journal Marine Pollution Bulletin, examined stomach contents of beached northern fulmars on the coasts of British Columbia, Canada and the states of Washington and Oregon.

 

“Like the canary in the coal mine, northern fulmars are sentinels of plastic pollution in our oceans,” says Stephanie Avery-Gomm, the study’s lead author and a graduate student in UBC’s Department of Zoology. “Their stomach content provides a ‘snapshot’ sample of plastic pollution from a large area of the northern Pacific Ocean.”

 

Northern fulmars forage exclusively at sea and retain ingested plastics for a long period of time, making them ideal indicators for marine littering. Analysis of beached fulmars has been used to monitor plastic pollution in the North Sea since the 1980s. The latest findings, when compared to previous similar studies, indicate a substantial increase in plastic pollution over the past four decades.

 

 

 

 

 

The research group performed necropsies on 67 beached northern fulmars and found that 92.5 percent had plastics—such as twine, Styrofoam and candy wrappers—in their stomachs. An average of 36.8 pieces per bird were found. The average total weight of plastic was 0.385 grams per bird. One bird was found with 454 pieces of plastic in its stomach.

 

“The average adult northern fulmar weighs five pounds, or 2.25 kilograms,” says Avery-Gomm. “While 0.385 grams in a bird may seem inconsequential to us, it’s the equivalent of about five percent of their body mass. It would be like a human carrying 50 grams of plastic in our stomach—about the weight of 10 quarters.”

 

“Despite the close proximity of the ‘Great Pacific Garbage Patch,’ an area of concentrated plastic pollution in the middle of the North Pacific gyre, plastic pollution has not been considered an issue of concern off our coast,” says Avery-Gomm. “But we’ve found similar amounts and incident rates of plastic in beached northern fulmars here as those in the North Sea. This indicates it is an issue which warrants further study.”

 

The researchers propose annual monitoring of trends in plastic pollution and the effectiveness of marine waste reduction strategies.

 

“Beached bird surveys are providing important clues about causes and patterns of sea bird mortality from oil spill impacts, fisheries by-catch and now plastic ingestion,” says co-author Karen Barry with Bird Studies Canada, a not-for profit organization that helped facilitate the study.

 

http://ecowatch.com/2012/07/09/marine-litter-birds/

 

 

  • Explore how artists/ designers and creative producers perform their role as cultural critics and agents of change through a process of visual and textual research.
  • RESEARCH- artists/ designers that respond in protest, imaging different futures. (2 books, 1 academic site), artists/ designers involved in issue. Artists/ designers and creative works in relation to the issue, same visual strategies as your own?

 

 

12333.png

http://hyperallergic.com/214959/liberate-tate-annotates-tate-moderns-turbine-hall-in-25-hour-guerrilla-protest/

 

 

“We all benefit from corporate sponsorship of the arts. Without corporate sponsorship we wouldn’t have buildings like this, because the government doesn’t give enough,” she said. “I think it’s very difficult where you draw the line about which company is acceptable.”

Glen Tarman, a member of the Liberate Tate movement since its inception, said: “Art museums are places where we make sense of the world. We make meaning from our lives and they contain what we most value. We shouldn’t be complicit in climate change just because we appreciate great art.”

He said the group was increasing its calls for the Tate to drop BP’s sponsorship because the deal was due to expire in 2016. He said the growing divestment movement, which has seen the Rockefeller Foundation, the Church of England and dozens of universities drop fossil fuel investments, was an example of the mounting view that public institutions should not be tied to the companies that drive climate change.

 

Many visitors to the Tate Modern were initially unaware that the performance was unsanctioned. Frances O’Neill, an artist, said she had viewed the work from the balcony above and, without knowing it was a protest was nonetheless “really, really moved”.

“I was just mesmerised by the visuals of it. I didn’t know what they were writing, I just got filled with a deep sadness,” she said. Once she read the interpretation signs laid out by the group she said she was supportive of the action.

“Someone’s got to do these sort of things. Someone’s got to say our planet’s being damaged. It may not be sponsored [by the Tate], but they are doing what the Tate does,” she said.

Another visitor, Audrey Valentine, said she thought it was wonderful the Tate was allowing the protest to unfold, but she that she did not agree with its message. “If these big boys didn’t do these things, are you suggesting that government should pay? They should put some money back,” she said.

Liberate Tate’s campaign against the Tate’s relationship with BP is part of a wider drive to rid the art world of oil patronage. The British Museum, National Portrait Gallery and National Theatre are among many major UK cultural institutions that receive support from fossil fuel companies.

 

https://www.theguardian.com/culture/2015/sep/03/art-not-oil-plan-protest-british-museum

 

 

 

More than a dozen rivers across France have all had the same green flow as “an alarm signal”, reports Le Figaro newspaper.

The conservationists wanted to make the point that resources to the sector had plummeted by 10%. This showed that ecology was down the government’s priority list.

A spokesman said they sought to alert people on the need to strengthen and preserve the environment.

The Environmental Inspector at ONEMA, Yannick Pognart, told the Local that currently it was “very à la mode” as they tried to accomplish more missions with less and less means to do so.

The group says the ministers should put a real public service environment in operation.

At present preserving biodiversity largely depended on 20 public sector workers in each department. However a new public service needs a proper workforce and budget, estimated to be over €200 million.

The group said they used a totally harmless colorant called fluorescein to show the patch pollution takes in rivers. They claimed that while the green colour looked very strong visually, it was totally safe. “They fish didn’t even notice,” they claimed.

The dye is often used to trace water flow in smaller doses but it was not toxic in any way to marine life, they stressed.

 
http://www.lonelyplanet.com/news/2016/04/28/rivers-france-green-environment/#ixzz4ArTsXP9Q

 

 

 

 

 

 

WEEK 12

  • RESEARCH- other existing creative work, variety of open media protest/ resistance to subtle responses.

 

WEEK 7.

237130­_A2_Wk7_Task#1_Truth Value_30/April/2016.

  • “…offers an unprecedented conjunction between what is here now… and what was there then” (Sturken and Cartwright, p17). I found this interesting because it shows how humans treasure memories and compare and contrast from then and now.
  • “…photographic truth as myth not because he regarded truth as always culturally inflected, never pure and uninfluenced by contextual factors- Roland Barthes” (Sturken and Cartwright, p18). I found this interesting because different groups have different worldviews which will always definitely shape the way that they view a certain image.

(Sturken, Marita and Lisa Cartwright. “Images, Power and Politics”. Practices of Looking: An Introduction to Visual Culture. New York. Oxford University Press. 2009. Print. April 2016)

 

Some similarities between different imaging technologies is that they capture the exact moment of an event, they all need to be activated by a person and most imaging technologies are also able to be developed physically onto materials. Some differences between different imaging technologies would be that they have different properties; zoom, filter, quality; another difference being how advanced the material and quality is; improving and being refined; lastly another difference being that they can be used for various things; movie cameras, polaroid to capture memories and phones for sending to people fast.

It is important to take into account the camera technologies ability to depict or represent reality when thinking about a visual text because it allows us to keep connected with people around us. To create change, a movement, telling a story or simply for keeping memories allow us to transfer our perspectives and worldviews into images which other people are able to interpret and learn from. When thinking critically about a visual text, it is important to understand the message or real form because every photo taken serves a purpose or is treasured by someone. Digital technologies are similar to analogue technologies because they can be used to produce messages to audiences and also have the ability to capture moments in both simple and powerful ways. Some differences between digital and analogue technologies is that digital technologies can be very easily phot shopped and twisted to create misleading and false advertising, another difference being that analogue technologies are more prone to capturing realistic ideas or issues; they cannot be easily altered to fit someone else’s taste, they are as they are.

Authors would probably propose that it is important for photographers and artists to understand their technologies because they are able to fully express their intentions and ideas. By understanding the angles and abilities of their technologies, the photographers can create a more realistic feeling and make the audience feel included to help transcend their messages. If we compare between photographs taken from then and now, we would be able to witness the different levels of expertise in using technologies that have developed, contemporary visual texts now would have focused more on captivating the feelings of an audience, whilst more historical visual texts would have just been to represent and show the static image alone as technologies then were merely beginning to expand in use.

 

‘The Myth of Photographical Truth’ is about how images can be perceived through questioning its limits of evidence, “about the different truth’s that images can tell and the limits of the image as evidence” (Sturken and Cartwright, p18). I believe that this idea is also about how people have different worldviews, with various cultural, social, political and religious beliefs that would affect what they perceive as the truth from any image, therefore possible myth, “… regarded the truth as always culturally inflected, never pure and uninfluenced by contextual factors” (Sturken and Cartwright, pg18). This is important to keep in mind when critically analysing any visual text as there will always be differing opinions and ideas from various groups and individuals, some may understand and settle to a conclusion with an image, however due to different life experiences, others may continue to question the truth of the image and call it a myth due to their alternative beliefs. Any image can be stripped down to different levels of viewing, through denotations and connotations. The myth of photographical truth will be very interesting to consider when writing my essay and analysing visual texts as it will allow me to gain a better and broader overview of differing perspectives on one text ‘Coal’ by Monet, whether people are drawn to thinking physical; about the crude physical labour; or whether others think mentally; about the cost of production and networking factories. The fact being whether people believe that this image is true in society or not depends on individual worldviews, either looking at an images literal meaning (denotation) or understanding the meaning behind the image (connotation) are both equally as important when critically evaluating any visual text. Challenging my own thoughts and ideas about the environment and human conquest of nature, how different social groups react to this. The technologies used to construct ‘Coal’ by Monet were oil paints, a canvas and a typical productive landscape in early British Industrial Revolution era.

(Sturken, Marita and Lisa Cartwright. “Images, Power and Politics”. Practices of Looking: An Introduction to Visual Culture. New York. Oxford University Press. 2009. Print. April 2016)

 

 

 

237130­_A2_Wk7_Task#2_World Views_30/April/2016.

Worldview, ideology and the myth of photographic truth relate to each other as they all lead back to the life decisions and experiences of an individual being. These words depend on the way an individual thinks about others and their surroundings based on learning from the people they surround themselves with and the environment they have been brought up around, “…truth as always culturally inflected, never pure and uninfluenced by contextual factors” (Sturken and Cartwright, p18). When critically evaluating producers of visual texts, these words will be good to focus on as they will create a deeper comprehension of why their opinions are the way they are, they might also be considered as evidence of how the author has come to their conclusion on a certain issue. When critically evaluating the audience of a visual text, these ideas may be considered for a taster of the various perspectives collected, through differing views and arguments put forward showing a wide range of viewpoints. A visual text may promote a dominant worldview through advertising, this is a clear example of how businesses and politicians influence the media and population. A dominant worldview where consumerism and politics rule and have become centralised through constant worldly advertising, companies aiming to influence people into joining or buying certain goods to keep up with societal trends which are ongoing and forever changing.

(Sturken, Marita and Lisa Cartwright. “Images, Power and Politics”. Practices of Looking: An Introduction to Visual Culture. New York. Oxford University Press. 2009. Print. April 2016)

 

 

 

237130­_A2_Wk7_Task#3_Contestation_30/April/2016.

MIND MAP WEEK7.png

  • (Burns, Wil C.G. Climate Change Engineering. United States. Cambridge University Press. 2013. Book. April 2016)
  • (Burton, Anthony. Remains of a Revolution. Britain. Penguin Books. 2001. Book. April 2016)
  • Burtynsky, Edward. Manufactured Landscapes. Canada. National Gallery of Canada. 2003. Book. April 2016)
  • (Evans, Eric. J. The Forging of the Modern State. Britain. Pearson Education. 2001. Book)
  • (Fairbairn, Madeline. New Direction in Agrarian Political Economy. United States. Taylor and Francis. 2016. Book. April 2016)
  • (Trinder, Barrie. Britain’s Industrial Revolution. Lancaster, Britain. Carnegie Publishing. 2013. Book. April 2016)

QUOTES:

  • “market- centred system… are guided by the gravitational pull of financial markets” (Fairbairn, p5) – recent rise in power and prominence, increasing investment in storage and transportation infrastructure, workers positions weakened in drive for financial profit.
  • “climate events and associated suffering can no longer be cast as acts of God or nature” (Fairbairn, p15) – human responsibility.
  • “safer accumulation in land and agricultural production” (Fairbairn, p113)
  • “land claiming in an era of questionable surveys… involved clearing for land claims” (Fairbairn, p231)
  • “urban migration has been mobilised to explain declining deforestation and forest recovery” (Fairbairn, p228)

 

  • “men’s access to the means of life, in control over their ecological environment, is their capacity to escape the tyranny and niggardliness of nature” (Evans, p129)
  • “between 1760 and 1860, British capital stock increased… trade and transport increased from 5% to 26%” (Evans, p130)
  • Between 1780 and 1850 workshop and domestic manufactures are much more than an adjunct to the factory revolution” (Evans, p133)
  • Britain’s industrial revolution depended not on governments but on men’s initiative, determination, ambition, vision, resourcefulness, single-mindedness and good honest greed” (Evans, p141) – general trend was mainly upwards, introduction of mechanics, reduction of dependence on unrealistic seasonal labour.
  • “industrial communities which grew up around the water-powered mills” (Evans, p163)

 

  • “land drainage turned water into arable lands… new crop… breeding of new strains… greater availability of food supplies… increased profits… invest in improvements” (Burton, p10)
  • “well established coal on the most important domestic fuel in towns… beginning to find uses in industry” (Burton, p39)
  • The greatest improvement in the transport of coal came with the introduction of railways’ 9Burotn, p45)
  • The increased use of the engine also brought new demands for the iron industry to supply to necessary castings” (Burton, p54)
  • “process of replacing adult workers by children… produced deep bitterness among the workers” (Burton, p220)
  • “photographing quarries was a deliberate act of going out to try to find something in the world that would match the kinds of form in my imagination” (Burtynsky, p53)
  • Felt it had a natural conceptual connection… visually reconcile that complexity” (Burtynsky, p53) – unfolding the machine’s structure.
  • “places and moments to embody my poetic narrative of the transfigured landscape and the industrial supply line and what that means in our life” (Burtynsky, p54)

 

  • “deeply affect the course of manmade climate change, which be regarded as one manifestation of the modern transformation” (Burns, p117)
  • “ANTHROPOCENE: a new geologic era in which humans exert strong influence over global systems” (Burns, p118)
  • Greater human wealth and numbers have not only disrupted a host of local or regional ecosystems, they have also upset the balance of several global scale natural cycles” (Burns, p118)
  • “PEOPLE TAKING ACTION: ‘Environmental Protection Agency’ plans to regulate under the Clean AIR ACT CO2 emissions from sources… lawsuits in U.S courts… proceedings effectively halted the construction of new coal- fired power plants that lack the technology to capture CO2 emissions” (Burns, p123)

 

  • “in 1700 to 1870… woodlands and forests were sources of energy and raw materials” (Trinder, p41)
  • “a fundamental innovation of the industrial revolution was to be the use of heat energy to create mechanical power that could be applied to do useful work” (Trinder, p45)
  • “…its power could be scientifically measured… could be applied to every purpose that requires either rotating or reciprocating motion” (Trinder, p57)
  • “innovation were stimulated as the capacity to build machines expanded” (Trinder, p58)
  • “by 1840 it was easy to assume that steam engines supplied most Britain’s energy” (Trinder, p61)
  • “possible growth of mining and manufacturing” (Trinder, p62)

 

 

 

237130­_A2_Wk7_Task#4_Questions to Topic Sentence_30/April/2016.

With the conquest of nature occurring throughout our history and even to current days, humans have been the dominant species in leading our world, through the Anthropocene period. Humans have developed as a species from being illiterate to beings with the endless capacity and ability to conjure up inventions proved ground breaking and essential to the Industrial Revolution. With advanced machinery on the rise, industry and agricultural production flourished serving important to companies and businesses who soon became greedy. Machinery became a means of taking raw materials and turning them into products used for the survival of humans, in household, food stuffs and consumerism, and with this, gas emissions and wastage has formed global warming. Humans are stripping nature down at an exponential rate, where most species, now extinct, were unable to adapt to the changing climates and environment alterations.

 

A2 COMPONENT B MY BEST BLOG POSTS 2016

WEEK 4:

  • 4c- Visual analysis of selected images

monet

(Mirzoeff, Nicholas. “The Changing World” How to See the World. London: Pelican, 2015. Print. ‘Figure 70 — Monet. “Unloading Coal”. 1875. April 2016.)

Questions about image-

Coalmen from Belgium and France are transferring coal from factories to ships to be transported overseas. The viewers eyes are being drawn to the people, the lines are diagonally leading down towards the boats, creating a sense of travel and destination of the coalmen, I believe the painter is aiming to make us recognise the people as the focus. The vantage point if where the painter is looking, his perspective in observing from afar. The bridge in the background above the workers allow to make the link between the landscape and the figures, as they are all based on industrial production. “Monet gives the composition a sombre, serious atmosphere, which accentuates the workers’ bleak plight”, using cooler colours to represent the gloomy feeling of the painting. The genre of this painting is impressionism, using colour and light to show the feeling of the landscape at the exact moment. His ability to blend colours into each other are very good, the sky and the land blend well to show the link of nature as a whole, and the black figures acting as a link to nature.

Questions about production-

Made in 1875, quays of the Seine River near the railway bridge of Asnières by Claude Monet. It was not intended for anyone, just to capture the modern day landscape of the time. Its production depends on the painter and what he aims to capture, using a cooler colour palette to form senses and feeling. The painter is an Impressionist styled painter “he was not for example, like Seurat, concerned with making political commentary”, the painting had no social criticism, the subjects of the image are workers from Belgium and France. The relation between the painter and the subjects are that he is watching them from a far, capturing the everyday production of coal, linking networking with hard labour. The genre of the image is “somewhat Japanesque and a balletic representation of work”, and has a gloomy feel which emphasises the dreary workers labouring away. The form of the image reconstitutes these identities and relationships of this production because of the arch of the bridge in the background and the silhouettes, the form is just framed enough to capture the happenings in this image, where people are seen loading coal to and from the boats.

Questions about audience-

The original audience for this image would have been for himself, as this was not to socially criticise anyone or anything, he simply wanted to capture how common this landscape was. Currently not being displayed, however recent audiences could be those wanting to learn about the Industrial Revolution or history of coal mining or production networking. We are looking through the eyes of the painter himself at the time, this relation allowing the audiences to be a part of the image, as if they are experiencing it first hand, watching from afar. The image probably could have done without a caption, this is due to the bridge in the background, allowing possible historians to trace back to the place, and also because the name of the painting ‘Les charbonniers’ (the coalmen), is French which indicate the origins of this image. There can be different views to this image, as it mainly just about the landscape and industrial accomplishments at the time, people can have different opinions about increasing human activity, both negative and positive, how human are destroying our planet, or improving it for the better. Some groups, depending on how industrially developed they are, can react differently to this image. If they are from a more developed country then it is easier for them to accept how far industrial production has improved and see these techniques as old, on the other hand, slower developing countries would believe that the processes are still current to them.

 

WEEK 5:

  • Task 3- Essay Topic Research

monet

(Mirzoeff, Nicholas. “The Changing World” How to See the World. London: Pelican, 2015. Print. ‘Figure 70 — Monet. “Unloading Coal”. 1875. April 2016.)

Coalmen from Belgium and France are transferring coal from factories to ships to be transported overseas. The viewers eyes are being drawn to the people, the lines are diagonally leading down towards the boats, creating a sense of travel and destination of the coalmen. The bridge in the background above the workers weighs down and almost confines the workers below, making the link between the landscape and the figures, as they are all based on industrial production. The genre of this painting is impressionism, using colour and light to show the feeling of the landscape at the exact moment. His ability to blend colours into each other are very good, the sky and the land blend well to show the link of nature as a whole, and the black figures acting as a link to nature. In building context, some main points would be how industrialisation occurred in Europe during the time, the conditions of workers and what networking systems they had transporting goods. The context of this work will allow me to better contrast shipping goods and labour then and now.

 

steam engine

(Cynthia Stokes Brown. “Fossil Fuels, Steam Power, and the Rise of Manufacturing”. https://www.khanacademy.org/partner-content/big-history-project/acceleration/bhp-acceleration/a/the-industrial-revolution. Khan Academy. 2011. April 2016. Website.)

This is an image of “The Sun and Planet” steam engine designed by James Watt. This visual text links to my ideas of the ‘Industrial Revolution’, global warming and conquest of nature. The idea of an engine that burns coal symbolises the beginning of a new era of machinery in both industrial and agricultural formation and development. The creation of this machine allowed people to pump water from coal mines much faster, but could also be put to other uses to quicken material productions, this being a good representation of our changing world. The steam engine also suggests the idea of global warming as more natural resources, such as coal, being taken meant more gas emissions through industry production and causing the rising temperature and damage of our planet and all species too, examples of smoke rising from factories, bigger cities and denser populations, railroads could be seen in many places in Britain. With continuous growth of developing machinery, humans have taken over almost all of nature and used its resources to help ourselves, our survival in expense of a doomed planet.

 

 

One idea I have taken from the presentation videos is how connected we are as beings, mentally and physically. How we have developed worldwide connections, how powerful humans have come to think of new ground breaking ideas and technology to industrially improve living on our planet. This idea of connectivity and development is a good link to my visual text “Sun and Planet Steam Engine” designed by James Watt. His design of forming a machine that uses steam from burning coal to power production, indicating human achievements and additionally transporting production through networking, connecting the world together for trade and survival.

 

(Ruskiewicz, John J., Daniel Anderson, and Christy Friend. “Reading Texts.” Beyond Words: Cultural Texts for Reading and Writing. 3rd ed. Boston: Pearson. C2012. P.10-15; 54-57. Print)

This process has helped me focus on my essay direction by allowing me to recognise what is missing, looking deeper into the larger image, “noting where you look first and then asking” (Ruskiewicz, p.11). As any painting was cropped to tell a story, this reading has taught me to look further and better comprehend what is ‘outside the box’, what is happening outside of the image, what is behind us from our perspective of the visual text. Also being able to look through different perspectives and think in various ways, instead of having one impression of the visual text, to help expand knowledge, become open to more possible ideas.

This process has helped me develop my understanding of contextual knowledge through reading about different types of genres and media used for individual visual texts. “Each medium makes its own demands on your imagination and senses” (Ruskiewicz, p.29), this makes me understand the necessity to research the background of a visual text, the history at the time to expand my contextual knowledge, allowing me to comprehend the reason for why the creator of the visual text has chosen to work on a certain medium to get his message across to us, his audience.

When making visual texts in design practice, the process of researching further into ideas I am interested in will allow me to express my feelings even more, the power of transcending a message will have deeper meaning once I know what I am aiming to tell people. The relevance of contextual knowledge is very important in making a visual text, this allows people to appreciate how it works or means.

 

EVALUATION-

My writings from weeks 4-6 have been very helpful in preparing me for this essay, the tasks where it focused on brainstorming my ideas and planning my essay have been very insightful, I feel very prepared and have a good idea of how I will tackle this essay.I can see that as the weeks have progressed, and my glossary expanding, my writing style has change a bit. I am able to better comprehend reading texts in detail and source materials from a wide range of places. My log posts have been incredibly helpful and I am now using them as research and sources to write my essay. In conclusion, this assessment has been the most interesting one so far, I can see improvements in my writing style and vocabulary too.

WEEK 6 REFLECTION ON LEARNING-

In conclusion, this assessment has been the most interesting one so far, I can see improvements in my writing style and vocabulary too. So far what has worked well for me are the readings and video presentations in lectures. I am highlighting lots of information and annotating which is good to read back on and summarise altogether, allowing me to further comprehend what I am going to be writing about. What hasn’t worked very well for me would probably be having to cite links and research, I find this very time consuming and sometimes I forget the order of things, however it all works out in the end. My ideas of global warming and colonialisation have been challenged, this is because further into my research I have realised that humans are really destroying our planet at a larger scale than I originally had thought. Some creative approaches I have taken when doing this paper is how I research and plan, I am a more visual learner, so I have made post it notes all over my books and on my wall so I am able to lay everything out at one go and create a checklist of what I have not yet completed, this approach will serve very useful in my other subjects in future. I am really enjoying this paper so far, I am learning a lot of fun things and find it very interesting to better comprehend the works of our world.

 Week 8, Task 1.

  • Planning and Preparation- reading through ‘Rose, Gillian’ chapters in book of readings, very insightful. Using a min map to lay everything out and continuously adding to it to expand knowledge. Highlighting and getting ideas down through sharing with peers, friends and family.
  • Writing Skills- reading through ‘Andrew Wallace’ and ‘Michael Clarke’ chapters in book of readings, thorough and detailed points. Understanding new words essential to writing the essay and adding to the glossary for future when I do not understand. Splitting out the work load through weekly blog posts, very handy when writing the essay at the end, combining paragraphs and ideas that have already been discussed previously.
  • Content and Visual Text Analysis Tools- reading through ‘Marita Sturken’ chapters in book of readings, understanding visual images and photographic myths. Exercises in the book of readings where they have questions at use where they break down the analysis of the image even deeper. The presentations and lectures were very useful for analysing a visual text, breaking it down with peers around us, getting us to think on the spot.
  • Research and Information Gathering Tools and Protocols- using the Massey Library as a main resource to find quotes and statistics. The book of readings was incredibly helpful allowing me to gather information about Photographic myth, ideology and worldviews, expanded my knowledge. The resources on the Massey Stream website was incredibly helpful, the videos were very informative and I was able to jot down a few notes.

Week 5, Task 1. Mind Map.

MIND MAP2NEW

237130­_A2_Wk7_Task#2_World Views_30/April/2016.

Worldview, ideology and the myth of photographic truth relate to each other as they all lead back to the life decisions and experiences of an individual being. These words depend on the way an individual thinks about others and their surroundings based on learning from the people they surround themselves with and the environment they have been brought up around, “…truth as always culturally inflected, never pure and uninfluenced by contextual factors” (Sturken and Cartwright, p18). When critically evaluating producers of visual texts, these words will be good to focus on as they will create a deeper comprehension of why their opinions are the way they are, they might also be considered as evidence of how the author has come to their conclusion on a certain issue. When critically evaluating the audience of a visual text, these ideas may be considered for a taster of the various perspectives collected, through differing views and arguments put forward showing a wide range of viewpoints. A visual text may promote a dominant worldview through advertising, this is a clear example of how businesses and politicians influence the media and population. A dominant worldview where consumerism and politics rule and have become centralised through constant worldly advertising, companies aiming to influence people into joining or buying certain goods to keep up with societal trends which are ongoing and forever changing.

(Sturken, Marita and Lisa Cartwright. “Images, Power and Politics”. Practices of Looking: An Introduction to Visual Culture. New York. Oxford University Press. 2009. Print. April 2016)