(‘Private Collection/ Bridgeman Art Library’. Anderson, Atholl. “Chapter 1: Ancient Origins”. Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Ed. Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney, and Aroha Harris. Aotearoa: Bridget Williams Books, 2014. page 28. Print)
This drawing depicts one of the earlier traditional forms of a double-hulled canoe in the early 17t century, illustrating the “…ungainly and dangerous” (pg 28) construction and materials involved in creating the structure. This is an important art example of the ancient origins of New Zealand as it symbolises one of many ever growing inventions since the beginning of Polynesian society since voyaging to New Zealand. Athol Anderson states that the difference in construction is noticeable “… certainly there were adaptation changes” (pg 28), proving that traditions of Polynesian voyaging and sailing is constantly evolving. In contrast to some of the later improved versions, Polynesian in New Zealand were involved in the importance of trade and interconnectivity all over the country by means of innovation through experimental sailing. Double-hulled canoes produced performance data and valuable evidence needed to gain more knowledge about “… seaworthiness, sea-keeping, sailing speeds and weatherliness” (pg 28). This is a good example of being able to trace back to Polynesian thinking and their ability to adapt to various seafaring conditions as they were able to build ingenious structures to “… better suit their sea conditions” (pg 28).
- (Anderson, Atholl. “Chapter 1: Ancient Origins”. Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Ed. Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney, and Aroha Harris. Aotearoa: Bridget Williams Books, 2014. page 28. Print)
(Te Papa, ME002100. Anderson, Atholl. “Chapter 3: Pieces of the Past AD 1200 – 1800” Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Ed. Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney, and Aroha Harris. pp 42 – 99. Print)
Te Puawaitanga (1500-1800 AD) ‘The Flowering period’
‘Pounamu Hei Tiki’ (page 94) is an artwork carved from one of the rarest types of pounamu, ‘kahurangi’, being bright green and pure of any marks. With its hand in mouth and striking tilted head pose, it was “made and worn as a mark of status” (Anderson, page 90) in the traditional era and was greatly treasured.
The traditional phase in New Zealand was the art historical period in time where Maori settlement was open to being mobile in many kainga (villages and camps). With many kainga dispersed around the country land and a continuous growing population, it tested people’s wealth and status, “heightening competition and territoriality” (Anderson, page 91).
One aspect of the artworks form that directly relates to the Te Puawaitanga art historical period would be the material used, and how it strengthened trade networking between the Islands. ‘Pounamu’, known as Jade stone, was a scarce luxury material originally sourced in the South Island which attracted the migration of many Maori seeking to showcase their wealth and status through Pounamu ornaments. With closely controlled trading between the Islands through Cook Strait, exchanging high value manufactured goods made with Pounamu to the North were “…distributed through networks that reflected links through ancestry” (Anderson, page 91).
The combination of trading between the Islands through strong ancestry links and representation of status/ wealth through detailed crafting both add traditional and historical importance to ‘Pounamu Hei Tiki” in New Zealand.
- (Anderson, Atholl. “Chapter 3: Pieces of the Past AD 1200 – 1800” Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Ed. Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney, and Aroha Harris. pp 42 – 99. Print)
1.) Choose one term from Moko Mead’s “Ngā Pūtanga o te tikanga: Underlying principals and values”, summarise this and explain how it can be applied to art/design.
Take-utu-ea: is the process of working out a solution to a breach of some sort. This three-some concept “comprises an analytical template for examining behavioural issues” (Moko Mead, page 27). Parties from groups involved must agree to a resolution that satisfies all parties and consequentially end in recompense for the wrong party. This term can be applied to art/ design through use of copyright issues of any work. Breaching of copyrighting of artwork can lead to arguments between the artist and the person who has used their work without their consent, which then inevitably calls the need for a solution and also punishment or repayment of the wrongdoer.
2.) Explain one way intellectual property and copyright laws are inefficient to address the misuse of taonga works.
Time limitations on safeguarding and granting temporary protection is one way intellectual property and copyright laws are insufficient to address the misuse of taonga works. With IP rights being granted for a limited amount of time and copyright laws lasting one or two generations, these laws are only temporarily safeguarding “… rights over use of the invention or expressions reflected in those physical things” (Taong Works, page 31), however ideas can still be developed and used without consent. Matauranga Maori is incredibly treasured being acknowledged as the “… hearts and minds of communities” (Taonga Works, page 44), hence these laws do not adhere to respecting Maori taonga works as kaitiaki do not have absolute control over sharing Maori knowledge and cultural identity.
- (Taonga Works and Intellectual Property (2011) in Ko Aotearoa Tēnei – A Report into Claims Concerning New Zealand Law and Policy Affecting Māori Culture and Identity. 29-56. Print.)
- (Mead, Hirini Moko. “Chapter 2: Ngā Pūtake o te Tikanga – Underlying Principles And Values”. Tikanga Māori: Living By Māori Values. Aotearoa: Huia Publishers, 2003. 25-34. Print.)
The European nation had planned to conquest territory in New Zealand through different groups; missionaries, advocates and agents of ‘Organised Immigration’ and merchants and capitalists. They collectively believed that the expansion and intervention into the new land would benefit not only their power as an Empire in trade and networking, but also improve their declining economic state in Britain, in consequence of the supposed Industrial Revolution, “profits were declining… disorder arising from poverty and unemployment was increasing” (Belich, page 183). The main settlements after the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840 had been split into sections, each largely influenced by “… European justices of the peace… and increasingly claimed jurisdiction over Maori” (Belich, page 191). The new state and Pakeha society had outnumbered Maori, they had lost a lot of independence and false control over possessions and land to which they could only sell to the Crown. The two parties had differing meanings of Maori consent and with this the local partnership led to disagreements and later on active violence evidence of the civil war in 1857 ‘Musket Wars’ in New Zealand between Maori and Pakeha.
Dick Whyte stated that before the designation of land, ‘sectioning off main settlements is largely influenced through conceptual and political acts’ (Whyte, Dick), which in hand has created diverse successes of communication and architecture within societal cultures in these living segments. European colonisation has greatly impacted on visual and material culture in New Zealand, infusing ‘new’ forms of tools and skills from overseas with traditional Maori ways, introducing different ways of building and marketing.
- (Belich, James. “Chapter 8: Making empire?” Making Peoples: A history of the New Zealanders, from Polynesian settlement to the end of the nineteenth century. Hawai’i Press, 2001. 179-203. Print.)
- (Whyte, Dick. 18th August 2016. Lecture. 2016)
How Maori visual and material culture has been framed by predominantly Western accounts.
Maori visual and material culture has mainly been influenced by Western accounts, this is evident through paintings and refashioning of existing tools and ornaments. Maori women were seen as exotic and refreshing to Westerners, and soon their attitudes were reflected in painted portraits of themselves, changing from natural poses to a more forced position they believed was asked of them. In 1773, a young Maori woman, “… offered her painter different reclining positions… she was instructed simply to remain entirely inactive” (Anderson, page 141). Maori material culture had also been framed around high demand of prized Maori tools sought by Europeans, “… demand stimulated production… refashioning of adzes into higher value hei tiki and other ornaments” (Anderson, page 157). Predominantly traditional Maori visual and material culture has been built around Western accounts, who have “…transformed a struggling colony into a progressive dominion” (Wheoki, page 3).
(Kahu huruhuru. Waikato Museum, L2004/17/6. Rangimarie Hetet, 1975. Anderson, Atholl. “Chapter 15: ‘Tangata Whenua, Tangata Ora’. Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Ed. Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney, and Aroha Harris. p454. Print)
20th Century art/design example, how it can relate to Maori worldview (origins, customary practices).
This artwork can be considered from a Maori worldview as Maori believe that knowledge from their ancestors are valuable information that should be passed down through generations in order to retain the purity of their native Maori culture. As a “… living taonga that carries the values, knowledge and spiritual essence” (Anderson, page 454) of Maori people, this traditional art form of weaving is a customary practice which is evidence to traditional Maori origins and carefully reserved family weaving techniques. Made from muka and pheasant feathers, this is a treasured taonga belonging to the artist ‘Dame Rangimarie Hetet’s’ family, in relation to Maori worldview, family and taonga values are highly prized in respect of historical origins and customary practices.
- (Anderson, Atholl. ‘Chapter 5: In the Foreign Gaze’. Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Ed. Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney, and Aroha Harris. Aotearoa: Bridget Williams Books, 2014. pg 132 – 159. Print. 2016)
- (Anderson, Atholl. ‘Chapter 15: ‘Tangata Whenua, Tangata Ora’. Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Ed. Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney, and Aroha Harris. Aotearoa: Bridget Williams Books, 2014. pg454. Print. 2016)
- (Mane-Wheoki, J. (2011). Art’s Histories in Aotearoa New Zealand. pg 1-12. 2016)