WEEK 7.

237130­_A2_Wk7_Task#1_Truth Value_30/April/2016.

  • “…offers an unprecedented conjunction between what is here now… and what was there then” (Sturken and Cartwright, p17). I found this interesting because it shows how humans treasure memories and compare and contrast from then and now.
  • “…photographic truth as myth not because he regarded truth as always culturally inflected, never pure and uninfluenced by contextual factors- Roland Barthes” (Sturken and Cartwright, p18). I found this interesting because different groups have different worldviews which will always definitely shape the way that they view a certain image.

(Sturken, Marita and Lisa Cartwright. “Images, Power and Politics”. Practices of Looking: An Introduction to Visual Culture. New York. Oxford University Press. 2009. Print. April 2016)

 

Some similarities between different imaging technologies is that they capture the exact moment of an event, they all need to be activated by a person and most imaging technologies are also able to be developed physically onto materials. Some differences between different imaging technologies would be that they have different properties; zoom, filter, quality; another difference being how advanced the material and quality is; improving and being refined; lastly another difference being that they can be used for various things; movie cameras, polaroid to capture memories and phones for sending to people fast.

It is important to take into account the camera technologies ability to depict or represent reality when thinking about a visual text because it allows us to keep connected with people around us. To create change, a movement, telling a story or simply for keeping memories allow us to transfer our perspectives and worldviews into images which other people are able to interpret and learn from. When thinking critically about a visual text, it is important to understand the message or real form because every photo taken serves a purpose or is treasured by someone. Digital technologies are similar to analogue technologies because they can be used to produce messages to audiences and also have the ability to capture moments in both simple and powerful ways. Some differences between digital and analogue technologies is that digital technologies can be very easily phot shopped and twisted to create misleading and false advertising, another difference being that analogue technologies are more prone to capturing realistic ideas or issues; they cannot be easily altered to fit someone else’s taste, they are as they are.

Authors would probably propose that it is important for photographers and artists to understand their technologies because they are able to fully express their intentions and ideas. By understanding the angles and abilities of their technologies, the photographers can create a more realistic feeling and make the audience feel included to help transcend their messages. If we compare between photographs taken from then and now, we would be able to witness the different levels of expertise in using technologies that have developed, contemporary visual texts now would have focused more on captivating the feelings of an audience, whilst more historical visual texts would have just been to represent and show the static image alone as technologies then were merely beginning to expand in use.

 

‘The Myth of Photographical Truth’ is about how images can be perceived through questioning its limits of evidence, “about the different truth’s that images can tell and the limits of the image as evidence” (Sturken and Cartwright, p18). I believe that this idea is also about how people have different worldviews, with various cultural, social, political and religious beliefs that would affect what they perceive as the truth from any image, therefore possible myth, “… regarded the truth as always culturally inflected, never pure and uninfluenced by contextual factors” (Sturken and Cartwright, pg18). This is important to keep in mind when critically analysing any visual text as there will always be differing opinions and ideas from various groups and individuals, some may understand and settle to a conclusion with an image, however due to different life experiences, others may continue to question the truth of the image and call it a myth due to their alternative beliefs. Any image can be stripped down to different levels of viewing, through denotations and connotations. The myth of photographical truth will be very interesting to consider when writing my essay and analysing visual texts as it will allow me to gain a better and broader overview of differing perspectives on one text ‘Coal’ by Monet, whether people are drawn to thinking physical; about the crude physical labour; or whether others think mentally; about the cost of production and networking factories. The fact being whether people believe that this image is true in society or not depends on individual worldviews, either looking at an images literal meaning (denotation) or understanding the meaning behind the image (connotation) are both equally as important when critically evaluating any visual text. Challenging my own thoughts and ideas about the environment and human conquest of nature, how different social groups react to this. The technologies used to construct ‘Coal’ by Monet were oil paints, a canvas and a typical productive landscape in early British Industrial Revolution era.

(Sturken, Marita and Lisa Cartwright. “Images, Power and Politics”. Practices of Looking: An Introduction to Visual Culture. New York. Oxford University Press. 2009. Print. April 2016)

 

 

 

237130­_A2_Wk7_Task#2_World Views_30/April/2016.

Worldview, ideology and the myth of photographic truth relate to each other as they all lead back to the life decisions and experiences of an individual being. These words depend on the way an individual thinks about others and their surroundings based on learning from the people they surround themselves with and the environment they have been brought up around, “…truth as always culturally inflected, never pure and uninfluenced by contextual factors” (Sturken and Cartwright, p18). When critically evaluating producers of visual texts, these words will be good to focus on as they will create a deeper comprehension of why their opinions are the way they are, they might also be considered as evidence of how the author has come to their conclusion on a certain issue. When critically evaluating the audience of a visual text, these ideas may be considered for a taster of the various perspectives collected, through differing views and arguments put forward showing a wide range of viewpoints. A visual text may promote a dominant worldview through advertising, this is a clear example of how businesses and politicians influence the media and population. A dominant worldview where consumerism and politics rule and have become centralised through constant worldly advertising, companies aiming to influence people into joining or buying certain goods to keep up with societal trends which are ongoing and forever changing.

(Sturken, Marita and Lisa Cartwright. “Images, Power and Politics”. Practices of Looking: An Introduction to Visual Culture. New York. Oxford University Press. 2009. Print. April 2016)

 

 

 

237130­_A2_Wk7_Task#3_Contestation_30/April/2016.

MIND MAP WEEK7.png

  • (Burns, Wil C.G. Climate Change Engineering. United States. Cambridge University Press. 2013. Book. April 2016)
  • (Burton, Anthony. Remains of a Revolution. Britain. Penguin Books. 2001. Book. April 2016)
  • Burtynsky, Edward. Manufactured Landscapes. Canada. National Gallery of Canada. 2003. Book. April 2016)
  • (Evans, Eric. J. The Forging of the Modern State. Britain. Pearson Education. 2001. Book)
  • (Fairbairn, Madeline. New Direction in Agrarian Political Economy. United States. Taylor and Francis. 2016. Book. April 2016)
  • (Trinder, Barrie. Britain’s Industrial Revolution. Lancaster, Britain. Carnegie Publishing. 2013. Book. April 2016)

QUOTES:

  • “market- centred system… are guided by the gravitational pull of financial markets” (Fairbairn, p5) – recent rise in power and prominence, increasing investment in storage and transportation infrastructure, workers positions weakened in drive for financial profit.
  • “climate events and associated suffering can no longer be cast as acts of God or nature” (Fairbairn, p15) – human responsibility.
  • “safer accumulation in land and agricultural production” (Fairbairn, p113)
  • “land claiming in an era of questionable surveys… involved clearing for land claims” (Fairbairn, p231)
  • “urban migration has been mobilised to explain declining deforestation and forest recovery” (Fairbairn, p228)

 

  • “men’s access to the means of life, in control over their ecological environment, is their capacity to escape the tyranny and niggardliness of nature” (Evans, p129)
  • “between 1760 and 1860, British capital stock increased… trade and transport increased from 5% to 26%” (Evans, p130)
  • Between 1780 and 1850 workshop and domestic manufactures are much more than an adjunct to the factory revolution” (Evans, p133)
  • Britain’s industrial revolution depended not on governments but on men’s initiative, determination, ambition, vision, resourcefulness, single-mindedness and good honest greed” (Evans, p141) – general trend was mainly upwards, introduction of mechanics, reduction of dependence on unrealistic seasonal labour.
  • “industrial communities which grew up around the water-powered mills” (Evans, p163)

 

  • “land drainage turned water into arable lands… new crop… breeding of new strains… greater availability of food supplies… increased profits… invest in improvements” (Burton, p10)
  • “well established coal on the most important domestic fuel in towns… beginning to find uses in industry” (Burton, p39)
  • The greatest improvement in the transport of coal came with the introduction of railways’ 9Burotn, p45)
  • The increased use of the engine also brought new demands for the iron industry to supply to necessary castings” (Burton, p54)
  • “process of replacing adult workers by children… produced deep bitterness among the workers” (Burton, p220)
  • “photographing quarries was a deliberate act of going out to try to find something in the world that would match the kinds of form in my imagination” (Burtynsky, p53)
  • Felt it had a natural conceptual connection… visually reconcile that complexity” (Burtynsky, p53) – unfolding the machine’s structure.
  • “places and moments to embody my poetic narrative of the transfigured landscape and the industrial supply line and what that means in our life” (Burtynsky, p54)

 

  • “deeply affect the course of manmade climate change, which be regarded as one manifestation of the modern transformation” (Burns, p117)
  • “ANTHROPOCENE: a new geologic era in which humans exert strong influence over global systems” (Burns, p118)
  • Greater human wealth and numbers have not only disrupted a host of local or regional ecosystems, they have also upset the balance of several global scale natural cycles” (Burns, p118)
  • “PEOPLE TAKING ACTION: ‘Environmental Protection Agency’ plans to regulate under the Clean AIR ACT CO2 emissions from sources… lawsuits in U.S courts… proceedings effectively halted the construction of new coal- fired power plants that lack the technology to capture CO2 emissions” (Burns, p123)

 

  • “in 1700 to 1870… woodlands and forests were sources of energy and raw materials” (Trinder, p41)
  • “a fundamental innovation of the industrial revolution was to be the use of heat energy to create mechanical power that could be applied to do useful work” (Trinder, p45)
  • “…its power could be scientifically measured… could be applied to every purpose that requires either rotating or reciprocating motion” (Trinder, p57)
  • “innovation were stimulated as the capacity to build machines expanded” (Trinder, p58)
  • “by 1840 it was easy to assume that steam engines supplied most Britain’s energy” (Trinder, p61)
  • “possible growth of mining and manufacturing” (Trinder, p62)

 

 

 

237130­_A2_Wk7_Task#4_Questions to Topic Sentence_30/April/2016.

With the conquest of nature occurring throughout our history and even to current days, humans have been the dominant species in leading our world, through the Anthropocene period. Humans have developed as a species from being illiterate to beings with the endless capacity and ability to conjure up inventions proved ground breaking and essential to the Industrial Revolution. With advanced machinery on the rise, industry and agricultural production flourished serving important to companies and businesses who soon became greedy. Machinery became a means of taking raw materials and turning them into products used for the survival of humans, in household, food stuffs and consumerism, and with this, gas emissions and wastage has formed global warming. Humans are stripping nature down at an exponential rate, where most species, now extinct, were unable to adapt to the changing climates and environment alterations.

 

A2 COMPONENT B MY BEST BLOG POSTS 2016

WEEK 4:

  • 4c- Visual analysis of selected images

monet

(Mirzoeff, Nicholas. “The Changing World” How to See the World. London: Pelican, 2015. Print. ‘Figure 70 — Monet. “Unloading Coal”. 1875. April 2016.)

Questions about image-

Coalmen from Belgium and France are transferring coal from factories to ships to be transported overseas. The viewers eyes are being drawn to the people, the lines are diagonally leading down towards the boats, creating a sense of travel and destination of the coalmen, I believe the painter is aiming to make us recognise the people as the focus. The vantage point if where the painter is looking, his perspective in observing from afar. The bridge in the background above the workers allow to make the link between the landscape and the figures, as they are all based on industrial production. “Monet gives the composition a sombre, serious atmosphere, which accentuates the workers’ bleak plight”, using cooler colours to represent the gloomy feeling of the painting. The genre of this painting is impressionism, using colour and light to show the feeling of the landscape at the exact moment. His ability to blend colours into each other are very good, the sky and the land blend well to show the link of nature as a whole, and the black figures acting as a link to nature.

Questions about production-

Made in 1875, quays of the Seine River near the railway bridge of Asnières by Claude Monet. It was not intended for anyone, just to capture the modern day landscape of the time. Its production depends on the painter and what he aims to capture, using a cooler colour palette to form senses and feeling. The painter is an Impressionist styled painter “he was not for example, like Seurat, concerned with making political commentary”, the painting had no social criticism, the subjects of the image are workers from Belgium and France. The relation between the painter and the subjects are that he is watching them from a far, capturing the everyday production of coal, linking networking with hard labour. The genre of the image is “somewhat Japanesque and a balletic representation of work”, and has a gloomy feel which emphasises the dreary workers labouring away. The form of the image reconstitutes these identities and relationships of this production because of the arch of the bridge in the background and the silhouettes, the form is just framed enough to capture the happenings in this image, where people are seen loading coal to and from the boats.

Questions about audience-

The original audience for this image would have been for himself, as this was not to socially criticise anyone or anything, he simply wanted to capture how common this landscape was. Currently not being displayed, however recent audiences could be those wanting to learn about the Industrial Revolution or history of coal mining or production networking. We are looking through the eyes of the painter himself at the time, this relation allowing the audiences to be a part of the image, as if they are experiencing it first hand, watching from afar. The image probably could have done without a caption, this is due to the bridge in the background, allowing possible historians to trace back to the place, and also because the name of the painting ‘Les charbonniers’ (the coalmen), is French which indicate the origins of this image. There can be different views to this image, as it mainly just about the landscape and industrial accomplishments at the time, people can have different opinions about increasing human activity, both negative and positive, how human are destroying our planet, or improving it for the better. Some groups, depending on how industrially developed they are, can react differently to this image. If they are from a more developed country then it is easier for them to accept how far industrial production has improved and see these techniques as old, on the other hand, slower developing countries would believe that the processes are still current to them.

 

WEEK 5:

  • Task 3- Essay Topic Research

monet

(Mirzoeff, Nicholas. “The Changing World” How to See the World. London: Pelican, 2015. Print. ‘Figure 70 — Monet. “Unloading Coal”. 1875. April 2016.)

Coalmen from Belgium and France are transferring coal from factories to ships to be transported overseas. The viewers eyes are being drawn to the people, the lines are diagonally leading down towards the boats, creating a sense of travel and destination of the coalmen. The bridge in the background above the workers weighs down and almost confines the workers below, making the link between the landscape and the figures, as they are all based on industrial production. The genre of this painting is impressionism, using colour and light to show the feeling of the landscape at the exact moment. His ability to blend colours into each other are very good, the sky and the land blend well to show the link of nature as a whole, and the black figures acting as a link to nature. In building context, some main points would be how industrialisation occurred in Europe during the time, the conditions of workers and what networking systems they had transporting goods. The context of this work will allow me to better contrast shipping goods and labour then and now.

 

steam engine

(Cynthia Stokes Brown. “Fossil Fuels, Steam Power, and the Rise of Manufacturing”. https://www.khanacademy.org/partner-content/big-history-project/acceleration/bhp-acceleration/a/the-industrial-revolution. Khan Academy. 2011. April 2016. Website.)

This is an image of “The Sun and Planet” steam engine designed by James Watt. This visual text links to my ideas of the ‘Industrial Revolution’, global warming and conquest of nature. The idea of an engine that burns coal symbolises the beginning of a new era of machinery in both industrial and agricultural formation and development. The creation of this machine allowed people to pump water from coal mines much faster, but could also be put to other uses to quicken material productions, this being a good representation of our changing world. The steam engine also suggests the idea of global warming as more natural resources, such as coal, being taken meant more gas emissions through industry production and causing the rising temperature and damage of our planet and all species too, examples of smoke rising from factories, bigger cities and denser populations, railroads could be seen in many places in Britain. With continuous growth of developing machinery, humans have taken over almost all of nature and used its resources to help ourselves, our survival in expense of a doomed planet.

 

 

One idea I have taken from the presentation videos is how connected we are as beings, mentally and physically. How we have developed worldwide connections, how powerful humans have come to think of new ground breaking ideas and technology to industrially improve living on our planet. This idea of connectivity and development is a good link to my visual text “Sun and Planet Steam Engine” designed by James Watt. His design of forming a machine that uses steam from burning coal to power production, indicating human achievements and additionally transporting production through networking, connecting the world together for trade and survival.

 

(Ruskiewicz, John J., Daniel Anderson, and Christy Friend. “Reading Texts.” Beyond Words: Cultural Texts for Reading and Writing. 3rd ed. Boston: Pearson. C2012. P.10-15; 54-57. Print)

This process has helped me focus on my essay direction by allowing me to recognise what is missing, looking deeper into the larger image, “noting where you look first and then asking” (Ruskiewicz, p.11). As any painting was cropped to tell a story, this reading has taught me to look further and better comprehend what is ‘outside the box’, what is happening outside of the image, what is behind us from our perspective of the visual text. Also being able to look through different perspectives and think in various ways, instead of having one impression of the visual text, to help expand knowledge, become open to more possible ideas.

This process has helped me develop my understanding of contextual knowledge through reading about different types of genres and media used for individual visual texts. “Each medium makes its own demands on your imagination and senses” (Ruskiewicz, p.29), this makes me understand the necessity to research the background of a visual text, the history at the time to expand my contextual knowledge, allowing me to comprehend the reason for why the creator of the visual text has chosen to work on a certain medium to get his message across to us, his audience.

When making visual texts in design practice, the process of researching further into ideas I am interested in will allow me to express my feelings even more, the power of transcending a message will have deeper meaning once I know what I am aiming to tell people. The relevance of contextual knowledge is very important in making a visual text, this allows people to appreciate how it works or means.

 

EVALUATION-

My writings from weeks 4-6 have been very helpful in preparing me for this essay, the tasks where it focused on brainstorming my ideas and planning my essay have been very insightful, I feel very prepared and have a good idea of how I will tackle this essay.I can see that as the weeks have progressed, and my glossary expanding, my writing style has change a bit. I am able to better comprehend reading texts in detail and source materials from a wide range of places. My log posts have been incredibly helpful and I am now using them as research and sources to write my essay. In conclusion, this assessment has been the most interesting one so far, I can see improvements in my writing style and vocabulary too.

WEEK 6 REFLECTION ON LEARNING-

In conclusion, this assessment has been the most interesting one so far, I can see improvements in my writing style and vocabulary too. So far what has worked well for me are the readings and video presentations in lectures. I am highlighting lots of information and annotating which is good to read back on and summarise altogether, allowing me to further comprehend what I am going to be writing about. What hasn’t worked very well for me would probably be having to cite links and research, I find this very time consuming and sometimes I forget the order of things, however it all works out in the end. My ideas of global warming and colonialisation have been challenged, this is because further into my research I have realised that humans are really destroying our planet at a larger scale than I originally had thought. Some creative approaches I have taken when doing this paper is how I research and plan, I am a more visual learner, so I have made post it notes all over my books and on my wall so I am able to lay everything out at one go and create a checklist of what I have not yet completed, this approach will serve very useful in my other subjects in future. I am really enjoying this paper so far, I am learning a lot of fun things and find it very interesting to better comprehend the works of our world.

 Week 8, Task 1.

  • Planning and Preparation- reading through ‘Rose, Gillian’ chapters in book of readings, very insightful. Using a min map to lay everything out and continuously adding to it to expand knowledge. Highlighting and getting ideas down through sharing with peers, friends and family.
  • Writing Skills- reading through ‘Andrew Wallace’ and ‘Michael Clarke’ chapters in book of readings, thorough and detailed points. Understanding new words essential to writing the essay and adding to the glossary for future when I do not understand. Splitting out the work load through weekly blog posts, very handy when writing the essay at the end, combining paragraphs and ideas that have already been discussed previously.
  • Content and Visual Text Analysis Tools- reading through ‘Marita Sturken’ chapters in book of readings, understanding visual images and photographic myths. Exercises in the book of readings where they have questions at use where they break down the analysis of the image even deeper. The presentations and lectures were very useful for analysing a visual text, breaking it down with peers around us, getting us to think on the spot.
  • Research and Information Gathering Tools and Protocols- using the Massey Library as a main resource to find quotes and statistics. The book of readings was incredibly helpful allowing me to gather information about Photographic myth, ideology and worldviews, expanded my knowledge. The resources on the Massey Stream website was incredibly helpful, the videos were very informative and I was able to jot down a few notes.

Week 5, Task 1. Mind Map.

MIND MAP2NEW

237130­_A2_Wk7_Task#2_World Views_30/April/2016.

Worldview, ideology and the myth of photographic truth relate to each other as they all lead back to the life decisions and experiences of an individual being. These words depend on the way an individual thinks about others and their surroundings based on learning from the people they surround themselves with and the environment they have been brought up around, “…truth as always culturally inflected, never pure and uninfluenced by contextual factors” (Sturken and Cartwright, p18). When critically evaluating producers of visual texts, these words will be good to focus on as they will create a deeper comprehension of why their opinions are the way they are, they might also be considered as evidence of how the author has come to their conclusion on a certain issue. When critically evaluating the audience of a visual text, these ideas may be considered for a taster of the various perspectives collected, through differing views and arguments put forward showing a wide range of viewpoints. A visual text may promote a dominant worldview through advertising, this is a clear example of how businesses and politicians influence the media and population. A dominant worldview where consumerism and politics rule and have become centralised through constant worldly advertising, companies aiming to influence people into joining or buying certain goods to keep up with societal trends which are ongoing and forever changing.

(Sturken, Marita and Lisa Cartwright. “Images, Power and Politics”. Practices of Looking: An Introduction to Visual Culture. New York. Oxford University Press. 2009. Print. April 2016)

WEEK 6.

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237130­_A2_Wk6_Task#1_Library Research_26/April/2016.

  • (Burton, Anthony. Remains of a Revolution. Britain. Penguin Books. 2001. Book)
  • (Evans, Eric. J. The Forging of the Modern State. Britain. Pearson Education. 2001. Book)
  • (Fairbairn, Madeline. New Direction in Agrarian Political Economy. United States. Taylor and Francis. 2016. Book)
  • Burtynsky, Edward. Manufactured Landscapes. Canada. National Gallery of Canada. 2003. Book)

 

 

237130­_A2_Wk6_Task#2_Who Else Is Talking About This Stuff _26/April/2016.

 

 

237130­_A2_Wk6_Task#3_Analysis Ideology_26/April/2016.

Ideology- is an idea of how society is supposed to function and ultimately work. Economically, politically and socially, we base our ideas on what we perceive as ‘normal’ lifestyles, our expectations and beliefs on how we look at our world.

monet

(Mirzoeff, Nicholas. “The Changing World” How to See the World. London: Pelican, 2015. Print. ‘Figure 70 — Monet. “Unloading Coal”. 1875. April 2016.)

Ideology is an important consideration when analysing this visual text because we are tested to think about how our economy has developed from early stages of the industrial revolution to our current further advanced world. We think about the condition for workers, whether or not they are overworked or underpaid, our ideology of equality and fair pay in our current society. These ideas are engraved into our minds, beliefs of right and wrong in the world.

 

 

237130­_A2_Wk6_Task#4_Essay Topic Research_26/April/2016.

(Hazard, Anthony. “The Atlantic slave trade: What too few textbooks told you”. TedEd. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3NXC4Q_4JVg. Dec 22, 2014. YouTube. April 2016.)

This video was about human slavery and the Atlantic slave trade, how many Africans were dehumanised and treated as mere objects to fulfil a task. Some relevant points in the video that link to my essay are mainly how the human slaves main purpose was to fuel our industrial economy controlled by a dominant race who sought to produce natural materials, sugar cane, tobacco and cotton. Another point being how influential humans were at the time, abusing their own kind for individual survival and the conquest of nature and land, showcasing our merciless behaviour, inequality and greed. These points are important for artists and designers to think about as it allows them to reflect and transcend their perspectives of the topic. Whether it be positive or negative opinions on human slavery, artists have the ability to make their audience ponder these ideas and issues in our society, and how we can effectively learn from history, or improve our future.

WEEK 5.

CONTEXTUAL UNDERSTANDING

Task 1- Visual Literacy

MIND MAP2NEW

https://www.mindmup.com/#m:a16e6f9c50e66901330ca56b5bfc36c655

 

(Levy, Don. “The Power to Tell the Difference: Visual Literacy in a Visual Age”. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f09ybYDJoSE. TEDx Talks. 16th April 2015. April 2016. Internet)

One idea I have taken from the presentation videos is how connected we are as beings, mentally and physically. How we have developed worldwide connections, how powerful humans have come to think of new ground breaking ideas and technology to industrially improve living on our planet. This idea of connectivity and development is a good link to my visual text “Sun and Planet Steam Engine” designed by James Watt. His design of forming a machine that uses steam from burning coal to power production, indicating human achievements and additionally transporting production through networking, connecting the world together for trade and survival.

 

 

Task 2- Contextual Understanding

What stood out to me in this text was how the photographer was able to capture two different sides of people’s reactions to a crime scene. Weegee’s amazing ability to capture emotion in action, where he also shows how different ages react to scenes. The photograph of the mixed crowd ‘The First Murder’ (Struken, Marita, and Lisa Cartwright. “Images, Power and Politics”. Practices Of Looking: An Introduction To Visual Culture. :New York: Oxford Univeristy Press, 2009. P. 10. Print), draws attention to the contrast between children and adult take on the death of a person, the older women are more shocked and delirious, and the children are more fascinated and wonderstruck by their first experience of a crime scene. These images photographed by Weegee are compacted with a mix of jumbled emotions which make us want to read the image as a whole and better comprehend by looking around every corner of the visual text. The first time I looked at this, my eyes were drawn to every face, reading all their expressions to understand.

 

 

 

 

Task 3- Essay Topic Research

  • (Mirzoeff, Nicholas. “The Changing World” How to See the World. London: Pelican, 2015. Print. ‘Figure 70 — Monet. “Unloading Coal”. 1875. April 2016.)

monet

Coalmen from Belgium and France are transferring coal from factories to ships to be transported overseas. The viewers eyes are being drawn to the people, the lines are diagonally leading down towards the boats, creating a sense of travel and destination of the coalmen. The bridge in the background above the workers weighs down and almost confines the workers below, making the link between the landscape and the figures, as they are all based on industrial production. The genre of this painting is impressionism, using colour and light to show the feeling of the landscape at the exact moment. His ability to blend colours into each other are very good, the sky and the land blend well to show the link of nature as a whole, and the black figures acting as a link to nature. In building context, some main points would be how industrialisation occurred in Europe during the time, the conditions of workers and what networking systems they had transporting goods. The context of this work will allow me to better contrast shipping goods and labour then and now.

 

 

steam engine.jpg

This is an image of “The Sun and Planet” steam engine designed by James Watt. This visual text links to my ideas of the ‘Industrial Revolution’, global warming and conquest of nature. The idea of an engine that burns coal symbolises the beginning of a new era of machinery in both industrial and agricultural formation and development. The creation of this machine allowed people to pump water from coal mines much faster, but could also be put to other uses to quicken material productions, this being a good representation of our changing world. The steam engine also suggests the idea of global warming as more natural resources, such as coal, being taken meant more gas emissions through industry production and causing the rising temperature and damage of our planet and all species too, examples of smoke rising from factories, bigger cities and denser populations, railroads could be seen in many places in Britain. With continuous growth of developing machinery, humans have taken over almost all of nature and used its resources to help ourselves, our survival in expense of a doomed planet.

 

One idea I have taken from the presentation videos is how connected we are as beings, mentally and physically. How we have developed worldwide connections, how powerful humans have come to think of new ground breaking ideas and technology to industrially improve living on our planet. This idea of connectivity and development is a good link to my visual text “Sun and Planet Steam Engine” designed by James Watt. His design of forming a machine that uses steam from burning coal to power production, indicating human achievements and additionally transporting production through networking, connecting the world together for trade and survival.

 

(Ruskiewicz, John J., Daniel Anderson, and Christy Friend. “Reading Texts.” Beyond Words: Cultural Texts for Reading and Writing. 3rd ed. Boston: Pearson. C2012. P.10-15; 54-57. Print)

This process has helped me focus on my essay direction by allowing me to recognise what is missing, looking deeper into the larger image, “noting where you look first and then asking” (Ruskiewicz, p.11). As any painting was cropped to tell a story, this reading has taught me to look further and better comprehend what is ‘outside the box’, what is happening outside of the image, what is behind us from our perspective of the visual text. Also being able to look through different perspectives and think in various ways, instead of having one impression of the visual text, to help expand knowledge, become open to more possible ideas.

This process has helped me develop my understanding of contextual knowledge through reading about different types of genres and media used for individual visual texts. “Each medium makes its own demands on your imagination and senses” (Ruskiewicz, p.29), this makes me understand the necessity to research the background of a visual text, the history at the time to expand my contextual knowledge, allowing me to comprehend the reason for why the creator of the visual text has chosen to work on a certain medium to get his message across to us, his audience.

When making visual texts in design practice, the process of researching further into ideas I am interested in will allow me to express my feelings even more, the power of transcending a message will have deeper meaning once I know what I am aiming to tell people. The relevance of contextual knowledge is very important in making a visual text, this allows people to appreciate how it works or means.

 

 

Task 4- Demonstrate Visual Analysis

(Cynthia Stokes Brown. “Fossil Fuels, Steam Power, and the Rise of Manufacturing”. https://www.khanacademy.org/partner-content/big-history-project/acceleration/bhp-acceleration/a/the-industrial-revolution. Khan Academy. 2011. April 2016 Website.)

steam engine

This is an image of “The Sun and Planet” steam engine created by James Watt and Matthew Boulton during the 18th century in Birmingham, Britain. This is a visual text of a working sculptural machine engine built in 1776 for the purpose of using cheaper materials to power production in Britain and the world. Prior to the creation of the steam engine, “people there had used up most of their trees” (Cynthia Stokes Brown), becoming more difficult to transport. Harvesting the planets mineral wealth for fuel and power was cheaper for Britain as coal was closer to the surface of their land. However, using coal to power a machine and create steam and drive a water pump was a ground breaking invention that would change the lives of workers and generations to come. “Leading member of the Lunar society” (Black, Jeremy), Matthew Boulton, invested his money in exchanging finance with creative ideas, “Boulton agreed to fund development of a test engine at Soho” (Wikipedia), of Watt’s revolutionary ideas. Transforming use of energy, creating an industrial and urbanised country, the 18th century being crucial history to the entire world, helped set motion for how we live today.

 

WORKS CITED:

WEEK 4.

PLANNING AND PREPARATION

Task 1a- The Essay Project

An analytical essay “involves critical examination” (Clarke, 2007, p.151), where we delve deeper into questioning the authors statement and give our own personal responses and interpretations to the text. Considering both sides of the statement and various opinions from other authors to gain greater comprehension.

It is distinct from other genres of academic writing as it mainly focuses on “the text’s themes and your personal response to these” (nwciowa.edu, http://home.nwciowa.edu/lundberg/AmLit/essayadv.htm, essayadv, website, April 2016). An analytical essay is different as we challenge the author’s statement asking multiple questions and, “…presenting some type of argument, or claim” (wikihow.com, Wikipedia, website, April 2016), it is based on individual interpretation.

Some good processes and approaches to follow when planning an analytical essay is to begin with “carry out an in depth inquiry into your chosen subject… can lead to a deeper meaning of what is expected.” (Clarke, 2007, p.153). Doing some preliminary brainstorming can help open up new questions that would be interesting to explore. “It is a good idea to know exactly what your conclusion is going to be before you start to write”, (Cappelen Damm AS, http://access-socialstudies. , Cappelen Damm AS, 2008, website, April 2016) this is good for writing in a logical progression.

 

Task 1B- What kind of thinker, planner and writer are you?

  • The advantages of different ways of organising writing is that there are parts where people are able to learn from others in order to improve essay planning and writing. The disadvantages of having different ways of organising writing is that there will be different rates at which people work, some may take longer than others to complete a task.
  • ‘The Grand Plan Writer’ shaping and planning style is most like my approach. This is because I spend a lot of time making notes, going over the question and statements and re-writing them in a way which I better understand what is expected. After writing I also tend to summarise everything again in the introduction and conclusion for a better overview of what I have just learnt/ written.
  • My way may be different from these different learning and planning styles as I tend to highlight important information and annotate over and over to simplify the meanings.

Firstly, I begin highlighting key words of the brief and look over what is expected in the exercise, I then go over it in my own words and tend to annotate things of interest and importance on the page. With reading and researching it is the same, I will skim read all resources and then go over in depth and add my own notes so I know the information is being processed, if I do not understand something I will always look on the dictionary or search for another reliable and accurate resource. Then with the information highlighted, I will break down the essay into main key points and add information under each main title, evidence and my own annotations included.

Based on the student descriptions I am ‘The Patchwork Writer’ and ‘The Grand Plan Writer’. It was useful reading these descriptions because it gave me an insight to the strengths and difficulties that I also am able to relate closely too when planning and writing any essay. I am able to come up with a draft and continue adding links from there and also tend to absorb as much of the brief as I can to better understand the task at hand.

 

QUESTION SELECTION RESPONSE

Task 2a- Which question?

Firstly the question is asking me to explain his perspective and individual take on the statements, ‘human influences and impacts upon the environment’ and ‘Western cultures in particular have had a preoccupation with the conquest of nature’. Secondly, list and explain how artists/ designers/ people are vocally concerned about the environment, and how it impacts on beings and the planet. Lastly, explain how the environment and its life forms are suffering in consequence to Mirzoeff’s statements.

 

Task 2c- Mind map

mind map1.png

https://www.mindmup.com/#m:a153ee4080dc6d0133477b039fec8cdfaf

 

SET READING

Task 3a- Critically reading and thinking

Mirzoeff wants us to think about how our human species and existence has slowly been deteriorating our planet and the environment. To the extent, Mirzoeff wants us to fully understand the situation and the consequences we have in effect on the environment and Earth, and from there, then are we able to begin forming new solutions to the global problem. He mentions about ‘Anthropocene’ more than once, which also focuses on how this time in history, our present, is where our species has become the most dominant in the regards to the ‘conquest of nature’.

I believe it is important for us to read about this text, it may not be directly targeted at any individual, however he subtly suggests that we are all connected in a way, meaning that we are somehow all responsible to the deterioration of nature and its life forms. I would further research into the topic as human developments, such as industry, extinct of animals and machinery, each hold consequences that have been blindly overlooked and taken for granted. Researching about how we are slowly killing our planet would allow better understanding and the creation of ground-breaking solutions.

(Mirzoeff, Nicholas. “The Changing World” How to See the World. London: Pelican, 2015. Print. ‘Figure 66 — The Lancet, map, ‘Managing the Health Effects of Climate Change’)

figure66

This best exemplifies Mirzoeff’s ideas, in my opinion, his main idea of conversation is about how people do not fully recognise or truly comprehend the danger that our human developments are actually effecting the world as we know it. This map indicates the amount of gas emissions compared to the amount of people affected (deaths), the main point being that there are opposite effects on countries. More people from low emitting countries are suffering from the disruption of gas emissions from other countries. Allowing us to understand that Mirzoeff’s beliefs that humans are causing their own destruction, we are the main reason for global warming and the damage of the planet itself.

  • The chapter title ‘The Changing World’, hints that the topic will be about the development and history of change on the planet, some contrast between then and now.
  • In the introduction, he introduces the main ideas in a short list in the third paragraph. He uses small titles to begin his new sub topics. In conclusion, he summarises his points with a quote and gives examples of the natural disasters and element of surprise these events affect humans.
  • He develops his discussion around key points by engaging the audience and asking questions himself, in allowing the thinking of the reader, “How do we now when the climate has changed?” (Mirzoeff p.1) By using visual texts, he develops his discussion by looking at the image in detail and drawing out attention to how and why it was composed as strong evidence to his argument. It was easier for me to understand his claim when he introduced various visual texts, as I am a visual learner.
  • He makes connections between historical periods and the current moment through use of his selected visual texts. Most of these texts were drawn from the past, and he is able to compare what the world was like during the period to what life is like now. This is a clear comparison which serves useful to the reader who is able to notice how different both societies are and what humans have done to change the world in such short amount of time.
  • Mirzoeff does suggest his thoughts in statements throughout the chapter, “… we should think of connecting a series of such frames into a ‘film’ that would allow us to see the structures, networks, histories and the effects of the Anthropocene” (Mirzoeff p.219), his opinion of how we should be approaching these issues and negative effects of the human dominant period.
  • He organises his discussion by sorting his topics from the beginning of our most natural to most modernised and industrialised world. Beginning with birds, the beauty of nature through animals and artworks, then transporting us into the world of coal and harmful emissions we have come to think as normal.

 

3b- Writing technique, free writing

Mirzoeff wants us to think about how our human species and existence has slowly been deteriorating our planet and the environment. Mirzoeff wants us to fully understand the situation and the consequences we have in effect on the environment and Earth, then are we able to begin forming new solutions to the global problem. Talks about ‘Anthropocene’ a lot, which also focuses on how this time in history, our present, is where our species has become the most dominant in the regards to the ‘conquest of nature’. Subtly suggests that we are all connected in a way, meaning that we are somehow all responsible to the deterioration of nature and its life forms. Human developments, such as industry, extinct of animals and machinery, each hold consequences that have been blindly overlooked and taken for granted. Talks about different poets, photographer and artists who aim to advertise how humans have changed how we see and understand beauty of the world. Photographers capturing ice melting due to climate change, artists capturing extinct animals such as birds who had been eaten by Dutch sailors, painters painting what was ‘modern’ during the time of coal and mixed a sunset with smoke. Map as a visual text indicates the amount of gas emissions compared to the amount of people affected (deaths). More people from low emitting countries are suffering from the disruption of gas emissions from other countries. Allowing us to understand that Mirzoeff’s beliefs that humans are causing their own destruction, we are the main reason for global warming and the damage of the planet itself.

Further close reading

  1. Inverse relationships, human ignorance and desire to live in modern societies
  2. Beauty of different natures, photographers/ artists/ painters drawing attention
  3. Extinction of animals, birds for food and sales
  4. Industrialisation, continuation of human domination burning coal and the consequences
  5. Built into our senses, what has become normal and invisible networking

Visual texts

  1. The Lancet, map, ‘Managing the Health Effects of Climate Change’- refers to this to show how climate change is effecting different groups of people. Idea of inversed relationships where countries who give off less emissions have been greatly affected by other countries in consequence of their proximity.
  2. Green (after Wright), An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump- refers to this to show the invention of the air pump by British scientist. Idea of showing comparisons of taking over nature (birds) and territory (land).
  3. Audobon, Passenger Birds- refers to this to show the beauty of the ‘Passenger Birds’. Idea of painter’s inability to paint live forms of these species due to their extinction, using corpses as a base of drawing.
  4. Monet: Impression, Sun Rising- refers to this to show what people began to understand as the new normal, smoky coal mixed with the landscape behind. Idea of beautiful human destruction being a dominated scene of machinery.
  5. Monet, Unloading Coal- refers to this to show human domination. Idea of having a once beautiful ocean turned into a function for human use and industrial work.
  6. Bellows, Forty: Two Kids- refers to this to show society life in New York, the negative impact on families. Idea of sewage and industrial waste consuming lives, however people were blinded to the state and desired to live in the modern city.
  7. Beijing, National Stadium- refers to this to show the amount of steel produced for the Olympic Games in Beijing China. Idea of how much global gas emissions would have been released in order for the production of the ‘Bird’s Nest’ and ‘Orbit’ sculpture to be built.
  8. Kapoor, Orbit- refers to this to show Chinese culture and industrial production power, with steel being produced at a massive scale worldwide. Idea of compulsory reduction of industrial activity in China, shows the country’s ability to contain global warming. However no nation is willing to lead the world, when it has been shown possible to reduce global warming.
  9. Baloji, Memoire- refers to this to show native people in Katanga, their own country, being slaves. Idea of forced labour on native communities, being pushed around and controlled by colonies who took over land. Continuous evidence of human activity and greed for copper in Katanga.
  10. Installation view of Coal + Ice, Yixian, China- refers to this to show photographers drawing attention to melting ice in consequence of increased coal production. Idea of global conjoined effort in building global warming, our ignorance to how we will be effected by the melted ice in the future, the repercussions on all species.
  11. Fisk, map of the Mississippi River and flood plain- refers to this to show the importance of the Mississippi River flow downstream between North and South America. Idea of the key vessel of transporting goods and interconnectivity of trade and industrial/ agricultural networking.
  12. US Army of Corps Engineers, diagrammatic map of the Mississippi River- refers to this to show the history of the Mississippi River, a map and diagram of movement and flow. Idea of indicating various possible outcome when attempting to change the direction of flow of the Mississippi River, mostly ending in useless attempts.

 

3c- Summary of a paragraph

‘Modern Beauty’ (Mirzoeff, Nicholas. “The Changing World” How to See the World. London: Pelican, 2015. p. 227. Print.)

Artworks were initially made to capture the beauty of nature, now serves as a reminder of our own destruction of the planet. Looking back we learn from these artworks, developing new ways which will allow us to find new solutions. In order for us to change global warming, we have to look at what we are doing, how we are destroying our world, for us to fully understand how we can begin to fix and mend the cracks.

 

3d- Mind map brainstorm

MIND MAP2

https://www.mindmup.com/#m:a12e0c5e00de8301332a000cd58b6c7266

 

3e- Locating relevant credible material

This source is worth reading because it comes from the opinion of chief innovator ‘John Kotter’, who talks about how most people view and deal with the change in our world. His ideas are about how society believe in the constant change of our planet, however still do not yet fully understand how to go about adapting to it. He mentions that people notice change, but do not change our behaviours to fit with our surroundings, we do not have the desire to adapt, and rather that it takes generations for it to start effect. This information is relevant to my question because they both focus on how our human species have the ability to recognise change, however are not able to realise that the world is changing too fast and that we lack the desire to come up with a solution before time runs out. Because we are not fully appreciating the consequences of this exponentially rising change, we continue to want more from nature, drying it out of its resources to continue our survival. This source will be difficult to tell if it is credible or verifiable because it is the opinion and perspective of one person. I believe it can be credible as it has been written by a professor from Harvard of Business School who would be quite knowledgeable.

 

This material is relevant to the question as it informs me about a specific example (German’s landscape take over) of how human activity has influenced and impacted the environment. New land was to be cleared for Germans on a grand scale, and wetlands of the region were used for expansion and improved production. This resource is worth reading because it has specific detailed information about what the Germans were up to and how they went about things to expand and build up their nation. This relates to the question also as it indicates how the conquest of nature had begun and the reasons behind draining wetlands for industrial and agricultural production and continual survival for man. I believe that this resource is credible as its evidence comes from a book that has been published with primary sourced evidence from the time. Because the author of the book has researched into the topic and talked about these primary images, I believe that this resource is also verifiable as the author would have based his findings from these proven materials.

 

This video is relevant to my question as it shows the consequences and detailed processes of how global warming effect the planet. How human activity is the main scientific cause of emitting harmful gases and creating thin layers in our ozone layer, making the Earth warmer each year and melting ice. The documentary video also talks about how developing countries are increasing their fossil fuel consumptions which in effects are slowly deteriorating various life forms on the planet. This video is worth listening to as it also gives the audience some advice on how to contain global warming near the end of the video, by changing to eco-friendly light bulbs and turning electricity switches off, to minimise energy use. I believe that this material is credible as the ‘National Geographic’ channel is well known and uses trustworthy evidence from a range of resources, videos, statistics, images and quotes from scientists. I also believe that it is verifiable because scientists and researchers have given detailed statistics, and also because they have stated that information from the past has been proven accurate in our current time.

 

This material is relevant to the question as it mainly talks about the main reasons for the conquest of nature. Why land was taken over and nature and territories were used for the ‘Industrial Revolution’. The questions asks why Mirzoeff proposes that Western cultures had a preoccupation with the ‘conquest of nature’, the resource stating that England had a lot of coal near the surface of the land which made it faster to use and thrived before China. This video is worth listening to because it gave me a good sense of background information about how Europeans predominantly needed coal the most, beginning the massive industrial production phase to help their developing countries. I believe that this resource is credible as the show has a team of historians who are able to suggest materials and answer audience questions, the information was very detailed and supported their reasons with primary and secondary images. This is also verifiable as he refers to iconic people who had invented machines and their achievements with machinery.

 

RESOURCES

3f- Bringing you knowledge to the topic

German land take over, European colonisation, coal works, Industrial Revolution, industry in China/ India, Hitler’s reign, Dodo bird extinction, global warming, changing to eco- friendly techniques and growing ice in Antarctica.

(Menzel, Adolph. The Iron Rolling. 1875. April 2016.)

coal.jpg

 

(Rutherford, John. “Sabbath stroll that created the Industrial Revolution”. https://i.guim.co.uk/img/static/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2015. The Guardian. 29th May 2015. Painting. April 2016.)

image2.png

 

3g- Glossary

  • Anthropocene- the current time period where human activity has been most dominant on the environment and the planet. Our species are shaping and instrumenting nature’s landscapes.
  • Geology- the main focus of issues of the Earth through scientific experiments and observations. Dealing with the history and study of the natural materials around us.
  • Colonisation- the movement and spreading of any species to a new territory/ area in which they desire to take over, where they are to build a new life and home.
  • Credible- trustworthy material, convincing argument and evidence.
  • Verifiable- confirmed evidence, material that has been proved just and accurate.

 

Image Selection

Task 4a- Video review

In this video, I have learnt how visual literacy has influenced children and generations during an earlier time. How it has the strong influence on “shaping young minds” in a way which has the ability to expand emotions and ideas, visual literacy being a very powerful tool in teaching our future. He believes that visual forms are used to tell a story, both positive and negative ones. I have learnt that children at a young age are able to learn things as they do it, through critically thinking about how to show emotions through a photograph, their depiction of ideas is their own. “Training the eye and heart of a student”, he mentions that visual literacy plays a very important part in a person’s learning comprehension, and that it should be focused a lot more in schools for their learning.

They each addressed how critical thinking is obtaining new knowledge and how we are to evolve everything in the world as we are now, continually increasing visual literacy. I learnt that most people just look at an image but do not think much of it, and that we should take the time to look closely in detail to understand and appreciate our world. However critical thinking will essentially allow us to obtain new knowledge, “we live an increasingly visual world”, to keep up with this change we need to understand and build from these visual texts. I believe that it would be good for other people to watch this video because it shows a wide range of opinions of critical thinking in our society and how and where it can be used in everyday life. It is also very short and concise which the viewer is able to watch over and over again faster, I recommend this video as it also highlights the reason of visual text importance, surrounds us wherever we are, being able to look in detail and understand in order to expand our knowledge.

The ‘Visual Literacy and Critical Thinking’ video got their point across to me best because it was short and concise compared to the longer video where he talked about a lot more about his life experiences, which is only one man’s opinion. The second video focused on one main topic ‘Critical Thinking and Visual Texts’ which was explained its importance through different individual opinions. Whilst the first video focused more on one person’s opinion and his thoughts on how his life influences shaped his perspective on teaching future generations.

 

4b- Image selection

  • (Rutherford, John. “Sabbath stroll that created the Industrial Revolution”. The Guardian. 29th May 2015. Painting. April 2016.)

image2

This visual text is relevant to the question because it represents factories producing goods and emitting harmful gases into the air. This human activity was happening during the ‘Industrial Revolution’, where production and creation of new machinery was beginning to develop. Mirzoeff talks about how human development has increased global warming and the harmful emissions and toxic sewage has been released.

 

dodo.jpg

This image is relevant to the question as it shows the extinction of the species, how its skeleton is what can be revived and used to show the closest representation of the Dodo bird. Mirzoeff talks about how humans have begun the extinction of species, selling them, eating them and hunting them, all leading to their end.

 

penguins

This visual text is relevant to the question because it represents how ice has melted in the Antarctic, the penguins all bunched together on one ice cap, lack of ice floating around due to harmful emissions warming the atmosphere up, causing the ice to increasingly melt a fast rate. Mirzoeff talks about how human activity is the main cause of global warming, using coal and energy to power everything for survival, however not noticing the effects of our actions elsewhere.

 

mining.jpg

This is relevant to the question because it shows the conditions for miners during the ‘Industrial Revolution’, how miners would have to crouch down to do their jobs and risk their lives to earn some money. Mirzoeff talks about how the continuation of people taking over land has increased the need to mine for coal, and the need for its use to power heavy machinery in use for survival.

 

4c- Visual analysis of selected images

(Mirzoeff, Nicholas. “The Changing World” How to See the World. London: Pelican, 2015. Print. ‘Figure 70 — Monet. “Unloading Coal”. 1875. April 2016.)

monet.jpg

Questions about image-

Coalmen from Belgium and France are transferring coal from factories to ships to be transported overseas. The viewers eyes are being drawn to the people, the lines are diagonally leading down towards the boats, creating a sense of travel and destination of the coalmen, I believe the painter is aiming to make us recognise the people as the focus. The vantage point if where the painter is looking, his perspective in observing from afar. The bridge in the background above the workers allow to make the link between the landscape and the figures, as they are all based on industrial production. “Monet gives the composition a sombre, serious atmosphere, which accentuates the workers’ bleak plight”, using cooler colours to represent the gloomy feeling of the painting. The genre of this painting is impressionism, using colour and light to show the feeling of the landscape at the exact moment. His ability to blend colours into each other are very good, the sky and the land blend well to show the link of nature as a whole, and the black figures acting as a link to nature.

Questions about production-

Made in 1875, quays of the Seine River near the railway bridge of Asnières by Claude Monet. It was not intended for anyone, just to capture the modern day landscape of the time. Its production depends on the painter and what he aims to capture, using a cooler colour palette to form senses and feeling. The painter is an Impressionist styled painter “he was not for example, like Seurat, concerned with making political commentary”, the painting had no social criticism, the subjects of the image are workers from Belgium and France. The relation between the painter and the subjects are that he is watching them from a far, capturing the everyday production of coal, linking networking with hard labour. The genre of the image is “somewhat Japanesque and a balletic representation of work”, and has a gloomy feel which emphasises the dreary workers labouring away. The form of the image reconstitutes these identities and relationships of this production because of the arch of the bridge in the background and the silhouettes, the form is just framed enough to capture the happenings in this image, where people are seen loading coal to and from the boats.

Questions about audience-

The original audience for this image would have been for himself, as this was not to socially criticise anyone or anything, he simply wanted to capture how common this landscape was. Currently not being displayed, however recent audiences could be those wanting to learn about the Industrial Revolution or history of coal mining or production networking. We are looking through the eyes of the painter himself at the time, this relation allowing the audiences to be a part of the image, as if they are experiencing it first hand, watching from afar. The image probably could have done without a caption, this is due to the bridge in the background, allowing possible historians to trace back to the place, and also because the name of the painting ‘Les charbonniers’ (the coalmen), is French which indicate the origins of this image. There can be different views to this image, as it mainly just about the landscape and industrial accomplishments at the time, people can have different opinions about increasing human activity, both negative and positive, how human are destroying our planet, or improving it for the better. Some groups, depending on how industrially developed they are, can react differently to this image. If they are from a more developed country then it is easier for them to accept how far industrial production has improved and see these techniques as old, on the other hand, slower developing countries would believe that the processes are still current to them.